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LES RESSOURCES NATURELLES DE LA REPUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO

En RD Congo l’exploitation des ressources naturelles à commence depuis 1 siècle. Elle a jouée un rôle Important dans la gestion économique durant l’époque coloniale. Le sous-sol congolais compte parmi le plus riche du monde ce qui fait dire du Congo un scandale géographique ; Et par rapport à son sous-développement on parle de la malédiction (de la RDC) des ressources naturelles. La mauvaise gestion de ces ressources a engendrer au pays : la corruption, la convoitise de la pauvreté de la population ; L’exploitation des ressources naturelles est parfois inégale.
- Exploitation illégale des ressources naturelles et la communauté internationale
Le lien entre l’exploitation illégale des ressources naturelles et autres sources naturelles de la RDC et le maintien des conflits des groupes armés est mise en exergue par le groupe d’expert qui a été mis en place par le secrétaire des nations unies le 31/07/2000 à la demande du conseil de sécurité.
L’ONG observatoire gouvernance et transparence et le groupe d’experts nationaux sur l’exploitation illégale de ressources naturelles, ont montré que la guerre est finalement au centre d’important engin économique et financier. Le panel d’experts de l’ONU a évolué les pertes matérielles du pillage a au moins cinq milliards de dollars américains.
- Les entreprises minières
La générale de carrière et des mines (LA GECAMINES) avec une concession de 18.800km3 pour le cuivre était la principale entreprise de cuivre minière. Elle produisait en 1980 environ 66% du budget de l’Etat et 70% de recette d’exploitation. Son rôle social et économique était très important dans le pays ; pendant 30 ans la GECAMINES a été le moteur de l’économie congolaise. La production du cuivre est passée du 465.000 tonnes avec un prix de 2.855 USD la tonne 1990 à 19.000 tonnes avec un prix de 1800USD la tonne en 2002.
Avec le retour de la paix consécutive à la demande de la démocratisation, la RDC avait signé avec la chine un accord s’élève à 8,5 milliard de dollar américain représentés par l’exploitation des ressources contre les infrastructures économique et social à mettre en place par la chine(route, hôpitaux, chemin de fer, écoles,…) Avec ses voisins la RDC a signé aussi des accords/ ou protocole d’accord et de coopération pour l’exploitation des ressources naturelle situées dans des zones d’intérêt commun.
- Autres ressources naturelles
RESSOURCES FONCIERES ET PASTORALES
La répartition des terres arables et de prairie pour l’élevage bovin notamment n’obéi pas encore aux règles très stricte malgré l’existence d’une double source de droit de propriété foncière la loi BAKAJIKA et les coutumes ancestrales qui reconnaissent l’autorité et la prépondérance de droit de chef traditionnel de terre sur l’Etat moderne. Il y a souvent des conflits entre l’exploitation des espaces par les éleveurs et les agriculteurs.
RESSOURCES MINIERS ET HYDROCARBURES
Elles font l’objet d’une convoitise internationale ; la matière précieuses comme l’or et le diamant ont souvent étaient à l’origine de nombreux conflits entre les populations et entre les Etats.
Dans la région de grand-lac aussi bien les spécialistes que les observateurs remarquent que les conflits armés et même non armés puise leur source dans les ressources naturelles.
Le colombo tantalique (coltant) appelé « or gris » à cause de son importance dans l’industrie électrique, dans la fabrication des téléphones cellulaire et ordinateurs a fait du Kivu la capitale mondiale de ces ressources naturelles à une époque malheureusement marquée par des conflits armés (la guerre).
- RESSOURCES AGRICOLES
S’il est vrai que les ressources agricoles ne sont pas généralement pas l’origine des conflits armés opposant la RDC à d’autres pays il n’empêche que la concurrence dans l’occupation des espaces entre agriculteurs et éleveurs a souvent engendré des conflits locaux entre les mêmes peuples.
- LES RESSOURCES FORESTIERES LIGNEUSES
La foret congolaise est l’une de plus riche en essences variées telle que : wenge (bois dure pour l’industrie navale, okoumé, limba, kambala,…) considérer désormais par la communauté internationale comme patrimoine de l’humanité, la foret congolaise, contient la plus grande réserve d’eau douce non polluée. Le bois congolais est le 2ème produit d’exportation en dehors le minerais, elle constitue aussi les 2èmes poumons de l’humanité après le foret amazonienne. Les potentielles économique de la RDC est loin d’être découvertes de telle manière que les ressources aujourd’hui marginalisées constituent l’espoir du pays par rapport à son développement ; La production vivrière ne pas encore suffisante alors que le sol congolais est considéré parmi les plus riches et disponible.
Le foret ne recèle pas que les espèces d’arbres, elle constitue aussi une source des différents produits, utilisés dans la fabrication des médicaments et d’autres produits cosmétiques. Les lacs et les rivières du Congo renferment également d’importantes ressources halieutiques (poissons) ; Si la RDC, pouvait faire de son potentiel en ressource naturelle une richesse, elle pourrait être parmi les pays dotés par la nature pour leur développement socio-économique. Aussi l’exploitation de ces ressources devrait se faire de telle manière que l’on pense aux générations futures on parle du développement DURABLE.

English translation by community member LightMyWay

THE DEM REP OF CONGO’S NATURAL RESOURCES

In DRCongo the exploitation of natural resources began a century ago. It played a huge role in economic management during the Colonial Period. The Congolese subsoil is among the richest in the world, which has turned the Congo into a geographic scandal. In relation to its underdeveloped state, people talk about the curse of the Congo’s natural resources. Poor management of these resources in this country has led to: corruption, greed among the poverty-stricken population. The exploitation of natural resources is sometimes unequal.

--Illegal exploitation of natural resources and the international community

The link between illegal exploitation of natural and other kinds of resources in the DRC and the continuation of conflicts by armed groups was emphasized by the group of experts instated by the UN Secretary on 31 July 2000 at the request of the Security Council.

The NGO “Observatoire, Gouvernance et Transparence” and the group of national experts on the exploitation of natural resources showed that war is ultimately at the center of principal economic and financial decisions. The UN panel of experts has estimated the price of material losses due to pillage at around 5 billion USD.

--Mining industry

La générale de carrière et des mines (Gécamines), with a plot of 18,800 square kilometers of land, was the main enterprise for copper mining. In 1980 it produced around 66% of the state’s revenue and 70% of earnings from exploitation. Its social and economic role was very important in the country; for 30 years Gécamines has been the motor of the Congolese economy. Copper production changed from 465,000 tons at a price of 2.855 USD per ton in 1990, to 19,000 tons at a price of 1800 USD per ton in 2002.

With the return of peace following a demand for democratization, the DRC signed an agreement with China worth 8.5 billion USD exchanging exploited resources for economic and social infrastructure to be put in place by China (roads, hospitals, railroads, schools…). The DRC and its neighbors also signed agreements/protocols for agreement and cooperation, for the exploitation of natural resources inside zones of mutual interest

--Other natural resources

PROPERTY AND PASTORAL RESOURCES

The dividing up of farm and pastureland, especially for raising cattle, still does not adhere to very strict rules, despite the existence of a dual source of property law, the Bakajika law, and the ancestral customs that recognize the authority and lawful supremacy of traditional land chiefs, even in the modern state. There are frequently conflicts over the exploitation of space between cattle breeders and agricultural farmers.

MINING AND HYDROCARBON RESOURCES

These are the object of international greed; precious materials like gold and diamonds have often been at the origin of numerous conflicts between populations and between states.

In the Great Lakes region, both specialists and bystanders note how armed and even unarmed conflicts are routed in natural resources.

Colombite-tantalite (coltant), known as “grey gold” because of its importance in the electric industry and in the manufacture of cell phones and computers, has made Kivu the world capital of this natural resource in a time sadly marked by armed conflict (war).

AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES

If it’s true that agricultural resources aren’t normally the source of armed conflicts between the DRC and other countries, it doesn’t change the fact that simultaneous occupations of land by farmers and breeders has often led to local conflicts between these same people.

WOOD & FORESTRY RESOURCES

The Congolese forest is one of the richest in various species, such as wenge (hard wood for the naval industry), okoumé, limba, kambala… Henceforth considered by the international community as the heritage of humankind, the Congolese forest contains the largest reserve of nonpolluted fresh water. Wood from the Congo is the 2nd largest export product after ore, and the 2nd largest of humanity’s “lungs” after the Amazon forest. The DRC’s economic potential is far from being discovered since its resources, today marginalized, make up the hope of the country in relation to its development. Food production is still not sufficient even while Congolese soil is considered among the world’s richest and most available.

The forest doesn’t offer only species of trees, it is also a source of different products used in the manufacture of medicine and other cosmetic products. The Congo’s lakes and rivers also contain important halieutic resources (fish). If the DRC could turn its natural resource potential into wealth, it could be among the leading countries using nature for their socioeconomic development. Also, the exploitation of these resources should be done in such a way that we think of future generations—we call this sustainable development.

Comments

LightMyWay's picture

Merci

Chère Ariane,

Vos reportages sont toujours fascinants à lire. Où est-ce que vous trouvez vos faits sur l’exploitation des ressources naturelles dans la RDC ? Je voudrais en lire plus.

Il me semble que vous vous intéressez beaucoup au développement durable et aux bienfaits que les ressources naturelles pourraient fournir pour votre pays. J’espère que vous trouverez un moyen d’appliquer cet intérêt et cette passion dans la vie et comme carrière, car les femmes comme vous ont la capacité de changer le monde !

Solidairement,
LightMyWay
(Lydia)

In DRCongo the exploitation of natural resources began a century ago. It played a huge role in economic management during the Colonial Period. The Congolese subsoil is among the richest in the world, which has turned the Congo into a geographic scandal. In relation to its underdeveloped state, people talk about the curse of the Congo’s natural resources. Poor management of these resources in this country has led to: corruption, greed among the poverty-stricken population. The exploitation of natural resources is sometimes unequal.

--Illegal exploitation of natural resources and the international community

The link between illegal exploitation of natural and other kinds of resources in the DRC and the continuation of conflicts by armed groups was emphasized by the group of experts instated by the UN Secretary on 31 July 2000 at the request of the Security Council.

The NGO “Observatoire, Gouvernance et Transparence” and the group of national experts on the exploitation of natural resources showed that war is ultimately at the center of principal economic and financial decisions. The UN panel of experts has estimated the price of material losses due to pillage at around 5 billion USD.

--Mining industry

La générale de carrière et des mines (Gécamines), with a plot of 18,800 square kilometers of land, was the main enterprise for copper mining. In 1980 it produced around 66% of the state’s revenue and 70% of earnings from exploitation. Its social and economic role was very important in the country; for 30 years Gécamines has been the motor of the Congolese economy. Copper production changed from 465,000 tons at a price of 2.855 USD per ton in 1990, to 19,000 tons at a price of 1800 USD per ton in 2002.

With the return of peace following a demand for democratization, the DRC signed an agreement with China worth 8.5 billion USD exchanging exploited resources for economic and social infrastructure to be put in place by China (roads, hospitals, railroads, schools…). The DRC and its neighbors also signed agreements/protocols for agreement and cooperation, for the exploitation of natural resources inside zones of mutual interest

--Other natural resources

PROPERTY AND PASTORAL RESOURCES

The dividing up of farm and pastureland, especially for raising cattle, still does not adhere to very strict rules, despite the existence of a dual source of property law, the Bakajika law, and the ancestral customs that recognize the authority and lawful supremacy of traditional land chiefs, even in the modern state. There are frequently conflicts over the exploitation of space between cattle breeders and agricultural farmers.

MINING AND HYDROCARBON RESOURCES

These are the object of international greed; precious materials like gold and diamonds have often been at the origin of numerous conflicts between populations and between states.

In the Great Lakes region, both specialists and bystanders note how armed and even unarmed conflicts are routed in natural resources.

Colombite-tantalite (coltant), known as “grey gold” because of its importance in the electric industry and in the manufacture of cell phones and computers, has made Kivu the world capital of this natural resource in a time sadly marked by armed conflict (war).

AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES

If it’s true that agricultural resources aren’t normally the source of armed conflicts between the DRC and other countries, it doesn’t change the fact that simultaneous occupations of land by farmers and breeders has often led to local conflicts between these same people.

WOOD & FORESTRY RESOURCES

The Congolese forest is one of the richest in various species, such as wenge (hard wood for the naval industry), okoumé, limba, kambala… Henceforth considered by the international community as the heritage of humankind, the Congolese forest contains the largest reserve of nonpolluted fresh water. Wood from the Congo is the 2nd largest export product after ore, and the 2nd largest of humanity’s “lungs” after the Amazon forest. The DRC’s economic potential is far from being discovered since its resources, today marginalized, make up the hope of the country in relation to its development. Food production is still not sufficient even while Congolese soil is considered among the world’s richest and most available.

The forest doesn’t offer only species of trees, it is also a source of different products used in the manufacture of medicine and other cosmetic products. The Congo’s lakes and rivers also contain important halieutic resources (fish). If the DRC could turn its natural resource potential into wealth, it could be among the leading countries using nature for their socioeconomic development. Also, the exploitation of these resources should be done in such a way that we think of future generations—we call this sustainable development.

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