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CAUSES DE DIVORCE CHEZ LES BALEGA/ TERRITOIRE DE MWENGA/ CHEFFERIE DE BASILE

Qui sont les Balega ?

Dans son livre intitulé : La Structure Sociale chez les Balega, Basile, M. WAMAMBA en parlant de Balega, il dit que Balega, est un ethnonyme c’a d un nom qu’une tribu ou un clan a reçu de son ancêtre fondateur, qui est composé de deux éléments à savoir : « Ba » qui sert de préfixe mais qui est en réalité un connectif, et « Lega » radical, qui est le nom de cet ancêtre légendaire.
En bref, Balega signifierait les descendants de Lega. Ils occupent une vaste étendue de la forêt équatoriale à l’Est du Congo dans le territoire de Shabunda et de Mwenga. Ces entités administratives forment ce que l’on appelle le Bulega (Pays de Lega).
Ses coordonnés géographiques sont 26°, 28° et 50° de longitude et 2°, 4° de latitude sud. C’est un pays aux limites imprécises qui héberge d’autres tribus que les Balega, mais la plupart de celles-ci sont soit très nombreuses, soit suffisamment légalisés.

Causes de divorce

Par sa définition, le divorce est la rupture judiciaire du mariage. Mais, dans la coutume, elle est une affaire concernant essentiellement deux familles car il est prononcé en famille. Selon la coutume lega par exemple, tout manquement d’un époux à une des obligations découlant pour lui du mariage, peut être cause de divorce au profit de son conjoint, mais, à la seule condition que ce manquement soit réellement grave. C’est la raison pour laquelle les causes de divorce sont multiples dans la dite tribu, mais je peux énumérer celles qui semble être les principaux causes, qui sont entre autre :
 l’impuissance sexuelle
 la stérilité
 la maladie
 l’incompatibilité d’humeur
 la sorcellerie
 le vol
 les décès des enfants…

Toutes ces choses constituent les causes justificatives de divorce, mais dans cette coutume, le défaut se trouve maintenant au niveau de la procédure où, les juridictions coutumières procèdent ne fusse qu’à la réconciliation des époux et en fin à la procédure de divorce, sans pour autant suivre la vraie procédure de divorce prévue aux articles 553 à 577 du Code de la famille(RDC).
C’est le cas par exemple d’un mari qui avait divorcé avec sa femme suite au décès exagérés des enfants car, ils avaient 9 naissances mais ont restés qu’avec trois enfants. Le mari avait renvoyé sa femme tout en accomplissant quelque geste symbolique en lui remettant une /flèche à porter à ses parents. Eux aussi, compte tenu des tortures qu’avait déjà subies leur fille de la part de son mari, ils ont été d’accord en remboursant la dot et tout était fini car le mari ne pourrait plus faire valoir aucun droit sur la femme. Les parents, sans tenir compte ni de la quotité des biens sur les fonds propres de son époux, ni d’organisation de la garde et de surveillance ainsi que de la volonté de ces deux enfants restants, ont été d’accord et tout était fini.

Recommandation

Comme les différentes coutumes ne savent pas encore grand-chose en matière de divorce, il serait mieux qu’il y ait :
• une sensibilisation suffisante en cette matière qui peut les amenés à suivre la procédure normale, afin qu’elles sortent dans cet état d’ignorance ;
• que les juridictions coutumières prennent leur responsabilité en main.

Femmes, unissons nous pour combattre cette mauvaise procédure de divorce car, elle constitue une autre forme de violence faite à notre égard.

English translation by community member Nancy Janus

CAUSES OF DIVORCE AMONG THE BALEGA/ TERRITORY OF MWENGA/ CHIEFDOM OF BASILE

Who are the Balega?

In his book entitled: The Social Structure of the Balega, Basile M. WAMAMBA, in speaking of the Balega, says that Balega is an ethnonym coming from a name that a tribe or a clan received from its founding ancestor. It is composed of two elements to know: “Ba” which serves as a prefix but in reality is a connective, and “lega” which is the name of this legendary ancestor. Briefly, Balega would signify the descendants of Lega. They occupy a vast expanse of the equatorial forest in the east of the Congo in the territories of Shabunda and Mwenga. These administrative entities form what is called Bulega (the country of Lega).
It’s geographic coordinates are 26°, 28° and 50° of longitude and 2°, 4° of southern latitude. It is a country of imprecise limits that shelters other tribes than the Balega, but most of them are very numerous or are sufficiently legalized.

Causes of divorce

By definition, divorce is the judicial rupture of a marriage. But, according to custom, it is an affair essentially concerning two families, for it is pronounced in family. According to the lega custom, for example, every failure of a spouse on one of the obligations falling on him in marriage, can be a cause for divorce to the profit of his spouse, but the only condition is that this failing be really serious. That is the reason for which the causes of divorce are multiple in this tribe, but I can enumerate those that seem to be the principal causes. They are, among others:
*sexual impotence
*sickness
*incompatibility of mood
*witchcraft
*flight
*death of children…

All of these things constitute justifiable causes for divorce, but in this custom the default is found now at the level of the process where customary jurisdictions proceed only in the reconciliation of the spouses and finally in the process of divorce, without really following the divorce procedure foreseen in articles 553 to 577 of the Family Code (DRC). This is the case, for example, of a husband who had divorced his wife following the unreasonable deaths of the children, for they had had 9 births but were left with only 3 children. The man had sent his wife away while executing a symbolic gesture that provided her with an arrow to carry to her parents. They also, considering the torture that their daughter had already undergone from her husband, were in agreement to repay the dowry and everything was finished because the husband had no more rights over his wife. The parents, without recognizing either the proportion of assets of the funds of her husband, nor the organization of guard and surveillance as well as the will of the two remaining children, agreed that everything was finished.

Recommendation

Since the different customs still do not know very much about divorce, it would be better if there were
*a sufficient awareness of this subject that could lead them to follow the normal procedure, in order to get them out of this state of ignorance; *that the customary judiciaries take their responsibility in hand.

Women, let us unite to combat this bad divorce process because it constitutes another form of violence against us.

Comments

mayele's picture

Impressionnant

A dire vrai ton article est vraiment impressionnant parce que tu détiens toutes les informations voulues concernant le mariage et comment l'on doit procéder au divorce qui n'est toute de même pas notre choix.Mon désire ardent est que tu partages ces connaissances avec les filles et femmes de ton entourage afin qu'elles sachent dans quoi elles s'engagent et surtout au cas échéant s'il faut divorcer comment s'y prendre.
courage madame dans ce travail de sensibilisation et continuer toujours à poster vos articles pour édifier les femmes et jeunes filles.

Mayele , Maman shujaa and World Pulse volunteer

Nancy Janus's picture

J'ai traduit votre journal

Kasindi,

J'ai traduit votre journal intéressant en anglais. C'est très intéressant, ce que vous écrivez des coutumes du tribu Balega. J'ai beaucoup appris.

Merci,

Nancy Janus

Nancy Janus's picture

Translation

CAUSES OF DIVORCE AMONG THE BALEGA/ TERRITORY OF MWENGA/ CHIEFDOM OF BASILE

Who are the Balega?

In his book entitled: The Social Structure of the Balega, Basile M. WAMAMBA, in speaking of the Balega, says that Balega is an ethnonym coming from a name that a tribe or a clan received from its founding ancestor. It is composed of two elements to know: “Ba” which serves as a prefix but in reality is a connective, and “lega” which is the name of this legendary ancestor. Briefly, Balega would signify the descendants of Lega. They occupy a vast expanse of the equatorial forest in the east of the Congo in the territories of Shabunda and Mwenga. These administrative entities form what is called Bulega (the country of Lega).
It’s geographic coordinates are 26°, 28° and 50° of longitude and 2°, 4° of southern latitude. It is a country of imprecise limits that shelters other tribes than the Balega, but most of them are very numerous or are sufficiently legalized.

Causes of divorce

By definition, divorce is the judicial rupture of a marriage. But, according to custom, it is an affair essentially concerning two families, for it is pronounced in family. According to the lega custom, for example, every failure of a spouse on one of the obligations falling on him in marriage, can be a cause for divorce to the profit of his spouse, but the only condition is that this failing be really serious. That is the reason for which the causes of divorce are multiple in this tribe, but I can enumerate those that seem to be the principal causes. They are, among others:
*sexual impotence
*sickness
*incompatibility of mood
*witchcraft
*flight
*death of children…

All of these things constitute justifiable causes for divorce, but in this custom the default is found now at the level of the process where customary jurisdictions proceed only in the reconciliation of the spouses and finally in the process of divorce, without really following the divorce procedure foreseen in articles 553 to 577 of the Family Code (DRC). This is the case, for example, of a husband who had divorced his wife following the unreasonable deaths of the children, for they had had 9 births but were left with only 3 children. The man had sent his wife away while executing a symbolic gesture that provided her with an arrow to carry to her parents. They also, considering the torture that their daughter had already undergone from her husband, were in agreement to repay the dowry and everything was finished because the husband had no more rights over his wife. The parents, without recognizing either the proportion of assets of the funds of her husband, nor the organization of guard and surveillance as well as the will of the two remaining children, agreed that everything was finished.

Recommendation

Since the different customs still do not know very much about divorce, it would be better if there were
*a sufficient awareness of this subject that could lead them to follow the normal procedure, in order to get them out of this state of ignorance; *that the customary judiciaries take their responsibility in hand.

Women, let us unite to combat this bad divorce process because it constitutes another form of violence against us.

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