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LA GESTION DE RESSOURCES HUMAINES ET RELATIONS

La gestion de ressources humaines est un problème rencontré dans le type PME (petites et moyens entreprises) Tout organisation coopérative doit avoir une ligne de conduite générale. Celle-ci fournit les objectifs, explique la réparation de l’autorité et les responsabilités dans l’entité.
Dans la mesure du possible, elle devrait définir des méthodes à appliquer dans toutes les éventualités.
1) LA GESTION DE RESSOURCES HUMAINES
- MISSION DU SERVICE DU PERSONNEL
- Recrutement et administration du personnel
Dans les entreprises importantes le recrutement et l’administration du personnel sont assurés non pas par le chef de service mais par un agent qualifié c’est le chef du personnel qui occupe une position fractionnelle puisque tout salarié de l’entreprise dépend pour son travail quotidien de son supérieur hiérarchique mais il relève du chef du personnel pour tout ce qui touche à l’embauche, à la discipline, aux promotions et aux sanctions. Le chef du personnel assure le rendement du personnel en mettant en œuvre directement ou indirectement les méthodes de recrutement ; Le rôle du chef du personnel est assuré dans les coopératives par le gérant ; cela dépend de la grandeur de la coopérative. La méthode de recrutement des agents exige :
La détermination de besoin de la main d’œuvre à court et à long terme en considération des mouvements probables de la main d’œuvre et d’analyse de tâches à accomplir ainsi que leurs caractéristiques et exigences ;
L’organisation d’une véritable campagne de recrutement : le principe de sélection suppose que l’on dispose de grand nombre de candidats parmi lesquels on choisit les meilleure par voie d’élimination successive ;
La sélection de candidats par voies telles que le questionnaire, les interviews, par observation.
- La formation professionnelle
Elle peut se faire à l’école ou dans l’entreprise coopérative ou encore les deux.
L’intégration dans l’entreprise du nouvel employé ou ouvrier et surtout du nouveau cadre sera facilitée par la pratique de stage. En effet si l’on forme bien les employés ils se développent et par là l’entreprise se développe. L’entreprise coopérative doit préparer un programme de formation efficace et pour cela il existe plusieurs méthodes de formations :
La formation sur le tas
La formation en groupe (discution, conférence, seminaire)
La formation spécialisée (cours des universités)
N.B : la formation collective est surtout utile lorsqu’on veut perfectionner des relations de travail, établir le rapport entre les travailleurs, leurs supérieurs et l’entreprise. L’article 5 titre 2 du code de travail décrit la manière dont doit se dérouler la formation dans une entreprise.
- La promotion du travail
L’entreprise coopérative est un organisme qui se renouvelle sans cesse ; elle doit avoir le souci de préparer les renouvellements d’autant plus que chacun est soucieux de pouvoir avancer dans la hiérarchie. Ainsi pour une coopérative la promotion interne est à la fois une nécessité économique et morale ici la tâche est double :
Déceler les membres du personnel aptes au perfectionnement cela se fait par l’observation au travail et par des méthodes d’investigation psychologique ; exemple : ce n’est pas toute personne qui cherche une promotion. Aussi l’individu doit avoir l’aptitude capable d’exercer le travail pour lequel il sollicite une promotion.
Réaliser ce perfectionnement par des cours de conférences des discussions de cas.
- Adaptation rapide du personnel
Le travailleur nouveau se trouve plongé dans un monde nouveau et y convient d’y faciliter son adaptation rapide. Le service du personnel ou la gérance d’une coopérative doit mettre en œuvre les techniques de relations humaines préconisées par l’accueil du nouveau : l’accueil amical, la conversation, la visite de l’entreprise coopérative, la remise de la brochure d’accueil, la présentation au chef de service etc.…
- La formation technique et générale
La gérance coopérative ou son service du personnel assure la formation et le perfectionnement technique du personnel. Pour la formation technique, la gérance participe à l’organisation de cours de formation et de perfectionnement tandis que pour la culture générale le service de Direction ou du personnel s’occupe de l’organisation de la bibliothèque ou du centre éducatif.
- La discipline
Un règlement de gestion du personnel doit être établi dans les trois mois de l’ouverture de l’entreprise et ne peut être mis en vigueur qu’après avoir été soumis à l’avis du conseil administratif. Ce règlement doit être affiché dans les lieux de travail et dans les locaux. Le chef du personnel tient à élaborer ce règlement et doit veiller à son application. Ainsi, il s’occupe du contrôle de retards, des absences, etc.…. qui désorganisent le travail. Il organise également des sanctions en complicité avec le chef direct de chaque travailleur (blâme, sanction, suspension, renvoi définitif)
- Le mouvement du personnel
Le chef du personnel tient la fiche de mouvements des agents engagés, licenciées, démission, désertion etc.…. Il détermine l’effectif du personnel à la fin de chaque mois.
- La fixation de la rémunération de travailleur
Le chef du personnel classe le personnel selon qu’on est cadre, maîtrise, agent d’exécution et applique la législation du travail avec l’inspection du travail et le syndicat.
- La tenue du matériel de service
La gérance ou le service du personnel tient les outils suivants :
Dossier du personnel : chaque dossier comprend les éléments établis lors de l’embauche : demande d’emploi, résultat du test, examen médical, copie de certification de service des employeurs précédent guide de cotation, promotion, courriers échangés avec le travailleur et la coopérative ainsi que les organismes extérieurs comme l’inspection du travail, la sécurité sociale.
Fichiers du personnel
Pour le personnel en activité et pour le personnel en retraite il faut ouvrir de fiches
Pour le personnel en fonction les fichiers comprennent : une fiche de membre reprenant les renseignements suivant sexe, non, date de naissance, nationalité, situation familiale, degré d’instruction, diplôme détenu, lange étrangère parlée, numéro de sécurité…
- Evaluation du personnel
Le gestionnaire coopératif évalue son personnel pour déterminer le niveau de compétence (productivité qualité) de ses agents conformément au résultat à atteindre. L’appréciation est basée sur des critères des objectifs et des normes précises et vise l’amélioration de la performance de l’employé. En évaluant le rendement du personnel le gestionnaire peut :
Relever le niveau de compétence de l’employé par rapport aux faiblesses constatées
Déceler les faiblesses de l’employé et déterminer ses besoins en formation pour l’amélioration de son rendement
Prendre des décisions importantes et éviter des affectations fantaisistes, le gestionnaire utilise une fiche d’appréciation en fonction de la disposition et des exigences du poste occupé par l’employé, sa personnalité et sa performance au travail. Chaque coopérative définit ses critères d’évaluation. Néanmoins il est retenu les suivants :
Sur le plan de la personnalité : on apprécie l’intégrité du personnel, l’esprit d’initiative, le sens de la coopération et de collaboration, le dévouement, la présentation, la ponctualité, le sens de responsabilité.
Sur le plan de la performance au travail on apprécie :la rapidité dans l’exécution, la précision et la concision le volume du travail, le rendement global, le sens d’autorité l’esprit de commandement. Dans les commentaires de la cote d’appréciation attribuée le gestionnaire insiste sur les points positifs et faibles qui nécessitent des améliorations de la performance. La conclusion finale de la cotation s’exprime en termes de décision de stagnation (garde le statut quoi, d’avancement de garde d’inaptitude conduisant au changement de poste où à la résiliation du contrat.

English translation by community member Nancy Janus

The management of human resources is a problem found in small and large enterprises. Every cooperative organization should have a general line of conduct. That provides the objectives, explains the line of authority and the responsibilities within the entity.As much as possible it should define the methods to apply in all contingencies.
1)THE MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES
-SERVICE MISSION OF PERSONNEL
-Recruitment and administration of personnel
In important companies recruitment and supervision of personnel are ensured not by the head of service but by a qualified agent. The Director of Personnel occupies a fractional position since every salaried worker depends upon the daily work of his hierarchical superior, but he responds to the Director of Personnel for everything regarding hiring, discipline, promotions or punishment. The Director of Personnel ensures the productivity of the staff by implementing direct or indirect methods of recruitment; the role of the Director of Personnel is ensured in the business by the manager; that depends on the size of the business. The method of recruitment of the agents demands;
The determination of need of short and long-term workers in consideration of the probable movements of the workers in the analysis of the tasks to be accomplished as well as their characteristics and exigencies;
The organization of a veritable campaign of recruitment: the principle of selection assumes that one has a great number of candidates among which one chooses the best by means of successive elimination;
The selection of candidates by means such as the questionnaire, interview, or observation.
-Professional development
Can happen in school or in the business or even in both.
The integration into the business of the new employee or worker and above all of the new team will be facilitated by the practice of internships. In the fact if one trains the employees well they will develop and from there the business will develop. The business must prepare a program of professional development that is efficient and for that there are several methods and trainings that exist:
On the job training
Group training (discussion, conference, seminar)
Specialized training (university course)
N.B. group training is above all useful when one wants to develop work relationships, establish rapport between the workers and their superiors in the business. Article 5, Title 2 of the work code describes the way in which training should take place in the workplace.
-The promotion of labor
The cooperative business is an organism that continually renews itself; It must be careful to prepare those renewals such that each person is careful to be able to advance up the hierarchy. Thus, for a business, promotion from within is both an economic and moral necessity. Here the task is double;
To detect the members of personnel fit for development. That is done by observation of their work and by methods of psychological assessment; for example: it is not every person that is looking for a promotion. Also the individual must have the ability to do the work for which he seeks promotion.
To realize this development through courses, conferences, and case discussions.
-Rapid adaptation of personnel
The new worker finds himself plunged into a new world where it suits him to adapt as quickly as possible. The personnel department or the management of the business needs to implement human relations techniques designed to welcome the newcomer: a friendly welcome, conversation, a visit to the business, a handout of the welcome brochure, introduction to the Head of Service, etc.
-Technical and general training
The business management or its personnel department ensures the training and technical development of personnel. For technical training, management participates in the organization of training courses while for the general culture the Department of Direction or of Personnel takes care of the organization of the library or the educational center.
-Discipline
A regulation for the management of personnel must be established within three months of the opening of the business and cannot be implemented without having been submitted for the opinion of the administrative council. This regulation must be hung in the workplace and other locales. The Director of Personnel has to explain these regulations and watch over their application. Thus he watches over lateness, absences, etc…, things that disorganize the work. He also determines sanctions along with the direct boss of each worker (blame, sanction, suspension or firing).
-The movement of personnel
The Director of Personnel holds the plug on movements of employees, license, retiring, desertion etc…. He determines the workforce of personnel at the end of each month.
-The fixing of the worker’s remuneration
The Director of Personnel classifies the personnel according to whether one is a team member a leader, an agent of execution and applies the legislation of work with the inspection of the work and the union.
-Holding of service equipment
Management or the personnel service holds the following tools: Personnel files: each file includes established elements since hiring: work requests, test results, medical exam, copy of the certification of service from previous employers, rating scale, promotion, letters exchanged with the worker and the business as well as with external businesses like work inspection, and Social Security.
-Personnel files
For both active and inactive personnel it is necessary to open files. For active personnel the files include: the document for the worker including information about sex, name, date of birth, nationality, familial situation, degree of instruction, diploma held, foreign-language spoken, and security number…
-Evaluation of personnel
The business management evaluates its personnel to determine the level of competence (productivity, quality) of its workers relative to the goals that they are trying to reach. The valuation is based upon objective criteria and precise norms in view of the improvement of the performance of the employee. In evaluating the performance of personnel the manager can:
Meet the level of confidence of the employee with regard to his stated weaknesses. Detect the weaknesses of the employee and determine his training needs for improvement in his performance, make important decisions and avoid fanciful assignments. The manager uses an assessment form according to the setting and requirements of the post occupied by the employee, his personality and his work performance. Each business defines its criteria of evaluation. Nonetheless the following are retained:
On the level of personality: one assesses the integrity of the personnel, the spirit of initiative, the sense of cooperation and collaboration, devotion, presentation, punctuality, and the sense of responsibility.
On the level of work performance one assesses: speed of execution, precision, conciseness of the volume of work, global output, the sense of authority, and leadership spirit. In comments on the side of the evaluation the manager focuses on positive points and weaknesses that necessitate improvements in performance. The final conclusion of the rating is expressed in terms of the decision to stay the same (maintain the status quo), evaluation of ineptitude leading to a change of position or termination of the contract.

Comments

mayele's picture

great

tu es intellectuelle,c est bon que les femmes parlent de leurs expériences personnelles mais il est impératif que toute femme soit instruite.
hongera dada

Mayele , Maman shujaa and World Pulse volunteer

Ariane Moza Assumani's picture

nous disons merci

merci pour votre encouragement bien sûr je sius intellectuelle mais chez nous en RDC, beaucoup de femmes ne sont pas instruite faute de manque de moyen les parent priorise les garçons en defaveur des filles. Merci

arianemoza

Nancy Janus's picture

J'ai traduit votre journal

Arianemoza,

Bonjour. J'ai traduit votre journal en anglais. Vous avez beaucoup écrit et il me parait que vous entendez bien les grands et petits entreprises. J'imagine que vous êtes professeur car vous vous exprimez très bien.

Bien à vous,

Nancy Janus

Nancy Janus's picture

Translation

The management of human resources is a problem found in small and large enterprises. Every cooperative organization should have a general line of conduct. That provides the objectives, explains the line of authority and the responsibilities within the entity.As much as possible it should define the methods to apply in all contingencies.
1)THE MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES
-SERVICE MISSION OF PERSONNEL
-Recruitment and administration of personnel
In important companies recruitment and supervision of personnel are ensured not by the head of service but by a qualified agent. The Director of Personnel occupies a fractional position since every salaried worker depends upon the daily work of his hierarchical superior, but he responds to the Director of Personnel for everything regarding hiring, discipline, promotions or punishment. The Director of Personnel ensures the productivity of the staff by implementing direct or indirect methods of recruitment; the role of the Director of Personnel is ensured in the business by the manager; that depends on the size of the business. The method of recruitment of the agents demands;
The determination of need of short and long-term workers in consideration of the probable movements of the workers in the analysis of the tasks to be accomplished as well as their characteristics and exigencies;
The organization of a veritable campaign of recruitment: the principle of selection assumes that one has a great number of candidates among which one chooses the best by means of successive elimination;
The selection of candidates by means such as the questionnaire, interview, or observation.
-Professional development
Can happen in school or in the business or even in both.
The integration into the business of the new employee or worker and above all of the new team will be facilitated by the practice of internships. In the fact if one trains the employees well they will develop and from there the business will develop. The business must prepare a program of professional development that is efficient and for that there are several methods and trainings that exist:
On the job training
Group training (discussion, conference, seminar)
Specialized training (university course)
N.B. group training is above all useful when one wants to develop work relationships, establish rapport between the workers and their superiors in the business. Article 5, Title 2 of the work code describes the way in which training should take place in the workplace.
-The promotion of labor
The cooperative business is an organism that continually renews itself; It must be careful to prepare those renewals such that each person is careful to be able to advance up the hierarchy. Thus, for a business, promotion from within is both an economic and moral necessity. Here the task is double;
To detect the members of personnel fit for development. That is done by observation of their work and by methods of psychological assessment; for example: it is not every person that is looking for a promotion. Also the individual must have the ability to do the work for which he seeks promotion.
To realize this development through courses, conferences, and case discussions.
-Rapid adaptation of personnel
The new worker finds himself plunged into a new world where it suits him to adapt as quickly as possible. The personnel department or the management of the business needs to implement human relations techniques designed to welcome the newcomer: a friendly welcome, conversation, a visit to the business, a handout of the welcome brochure, introduction to the Head of Service, etc.
-Technical and general training
The business management or its personnel department ensures the training and technical development of personnel. For technical training, management participates in the organization of training courses while for the general culture the Department of Direction or of Personnel takes care of the organization of the library or the educational center.
-Discipline
A regulation for the management of personnel must be established within three months of the opening of the business and cannot be implemented without having been submitted for the opinion of the administrative council. This regulation must be hung in the workplace and other locales. The Director of Personnel has to explain these regulations and watch over their application. Thus he watches over lateness, absences, etc…, things that disorganize the work. He also determines sanctions along with the direct boss of each worker (blame, sanction, suspension or firing).
-The movement of personnel
The Director of Personnel holds the plug on movements of employees, license, retiring, desertion etc…. He determines the workforce of personnel at the end of each month.
-The fixing of the worker’s remuneration
The Director of Personnel classifies the personnel according to whether one is a team member a leader, an agent of execution and applies the legislation of work with the inspection of the work and the union.
-Holding of service equipment
Management or the personnel service holds the following tools: Personnel files: each file includes established elements since hiring: work requests, test results, medical exam, copy of the certification of service from previous employers, rating scale, promotion, letters exchanged with the worker and the business as well as with external businesses like work inspection, and Social Security.
-Personnel files
For both active and inactive personnel it is necessary to open files. For active personnel the files include: the document for the worker including information about sex, name, date of birth, nationality, familial situation, degree of instruction, diploma held, foreign-language spoken, and security number…
-Evaluation of personnel
The business management evaluates its personnel to determine the level of competence (productivity, quality) of its workers relative to the goals that they are trying to reach. The valuation is based upon objective criteria and precise norms in view of the improvement of the performance of the employee. In evaluating the performance of personnel the manager can:
Meet the level of confidence of the employee with regard to his stated weaknesses. Detect the weaknesses of the employee and determine his training needs for improvement in his performance, make important decisions and avoid fanciful assignments. The manager uses an assessment form according to the setting and requirements of the post occupied by the employee, his personality and his work performance. Each business defines its criteria of evaluation. Nonetheless the following are retained:
On the level of personality: one assesses the integrity of the personnel, the spirit of initiative, the sense of cooperation and collaboration, devotion, presentation, punctuality, and the sense of responsibility.
On the level of work performance one assesses: speed of execution, precision, conciseness of the volume of work, global output, the sense of authority, and leadership spirit. In comments on the side of the evaluation the manager focuses on positive points and weaknesses that necessitate improvements in performance. The final conclusion of the rating is expressed in terms of the decision to stay the same (maintain the status quo), evaluation of ineptitude leading to a change of position or termination of the contract.

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