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Adoption: A New Approach to Development and Women’s Rights

Homeless Children in Bangladesh (source: tearsofdhaka.blogspot.com)

Forty-one years into independence, Bangladesh still does not have legal provisions for traditional adoption as understood in many developed countries, such as the United States. In line with most of the world’s 49 Muslim-majority countries, Bangladeshi laws permit legal guardianship or sponsorship of an abandoned or orphan child. According to UNICEF (2008), an estimated 4.4 million children in Bangladesh have lost a mother, father, or both parents. Furthermore, Australian Aid reveals that around 2 million children in Bangladesh are homeless and live on streets.

After the Bangladesh Abandoned Children (Special Provisions) Order 1972 was repealed in 1982 following allegations of child trafficking in the name of adoption, foreigners have been banned from adoption or even legal guardianship of Bangladeshi children. However, a non-resident Bangladeshi or a Bangladeshi with dual citizenship may apply for a legal guardianship. Consequently, in 2012, only nineteen adoptions from Bangladesh were completed in the United States – although the number is much higher than in the last 13 years. The process of filing for guardianship, then immigration, and finally adoption of the child abroad is strenuous and time-consuming.

While some Islamic clerics, such as Imam Yusuf Badat of Islamic Foundation of Toronto, are embracing the concept of adoption that grants full parental rights to the adoptive parents, most Muslim nations practice ‘kafala,’ a system that only allows guardianship or sponsorship, but not adoption in its fullest essence. This affects the inheritance of property and as a result, the economic future of the adopted child remains bleak. The Hindu Law in Bangladesh is particularly discriminatory towards girls as it allows the adoption of boys only. In addition, while a Hindu man has the rights to adopt children irrespective of his marital status, a Hindu woman achieves such a privilege only if she is married or widowed and if she has the permission of her husband.

Furthermore, social stigma is attached to infertility in Bangladesh and adoption is usually viewed as a by-product of infertility or ‘illicit’ relationship out of marriage. Women face the most brunt of this distorted perception as they are primarily accused of being barren (even if the husband is sterile) and the husband is convinced to re-marry a “complete” woman. Women unable to conceive are labeled inauspicious and are generally forced to undergo “divine” medical treatment by religious quacks.

Women in Bangladesh, particularly those in the rural areas, have little knowledge and control of their sexual and reproductive rights. As of 2007, an astounding 44.2% of rural women were forced to bear their first child, in spite of the fact that about 28,000 women die each year in Bangladesh due to pregnancy and abortion related complications. According to UNICEF (2007), about 48% of Bangladeshi women say their husbands alone make decisions about their health, while 35% say their husbands alone make decisions regarding visits to family and friends.

Having over 2 years of experience in the non-profit sector, I have seen orphaned children being sponsored for basic amenities; being fed a wholesome meal for a day; or being socially-involved through children’s parties – none of which is bad. However, something which is hardly propagated by most development organizations is that these children are being deprived of a key ingredient necessary for their mental health: love. According to National Institute of Mental Health in Bangladesh, one-fourth of children in Bangladesh suffer from mental health problems. Some of the reasons identified are increasing family problems, violence, and poverty. With such a backdrop, it is important that women who are yearning to adopt children are matched with children who are craving love, without any cultural and legal complications associated with the process.

In a country where 41% of the population is under 18 and 84% of the population lives on less than $2 a day, adoption seems a viable solution for social and economic development – a door that must be open to women. A uniform law that recognizes adoption in and from Bangladesh and is not bogged down by bureaucracy or religious extremism is a prerequisite to that end.

This article is part of a writing assignment for Voices of Our Future a program of World Pulse that provides rigorous new media and citizen journalism training for grassroots women leaders. World Pulse lifts and unites the voices of women from some of the most unheard regions of the world.

Comments

Kabukabu Ikwueme's picture

Fantastic work Monica. Well

Fantastic work Monica. Well done

Monica09's picture

Thank you!

Thank you dear Mentor! It means a lot to have received a comment from you!

Warmly,
Monica

Virginia W's picture

Bravo, Monica, a powerful piece!

Well done, Monica, it is really a strong call to action filled with examples.
Warmly, Virginia

Virginia Williams, MBA, PCC | Executive Coach and Learning Facilitator

Monica09's picture

Thank you!

Thank you dear Mentor! It means a lot to have received a comment from you!

Warm regards,
Monica

Y's picture

One World of Women and

One World of Women and Children, sharing equally in the earth's resources, is a possibility that those who rule by imposing fear, fear more than even nuclear annihilation of themselves and the rest of the earth. What they don't understand and can't control, they seek to destroy. Strong women can educate their men, if they are willing to do so.

I don't know that adoption will change anything without new rules to protect women and children who take care of the vulnerable, but I do pray for a new age of enlightenment to dawn through the voices of young citizen journalist like you.

Thank you, Monica, for your brave voice.
Blessings.
Yvette

Yvette

Monica09's picture

Thank you!

Dear Ms. Yvette,

You are always very encouraging. Thank you so much for supporting me!

Warmly,
Monica

delphine criscenzo's picture

Surrogate Mother

Dear Monica,

Thank you for this strong and beautiful piece advocating for better adoption practices in your country. I am humbled by the reality of orphaned children in Bangladesh and their desperate need of love. Thank you for reminding us that despite religious law, international relations and fear of sex trafficking, the orphans of Bangladesh are in desperate need of love and that there might be many women willing to give them what they need.
Thank you,

Delphine Criscenzo

Monica09's picture

Thank you!

Dear Delphine,

Thank you so much for reading and leaving a comment!

I am glad that you feel the stark reality of orphans in Bangladesh. I feel women should be able to speak out and choose if they want to adopt or not. I personally want to adopt after marriage but I have faced opposition and discouragement from friends and family already.

Regards,
Monica

Lisa Anderson's picture

Stunning work!

Dear Monica,

What a beautiful piece! You strike a perfect balance between statistics and story, and spurred me to research more. The way you describe orphans craving love is a powerful call to action.

Shine on, sister!

Warmly,
Lisa

Lisa Kislingbury Anderson
Storyteller | Passionate community member

Monica09's picture

Thank you!

Dear Lisa,

Thank you so much for the encouragement!

Warmly,
Monica

Beezoo's picture

Great story

Monica,

My husband was born here in the US but his parents are both from Dhaka. We went there last year and wanted so much to visit an orphanage with he thought towards adoption. I was disappointed to learn we couldn't adopt since neither of us have citizenship. I saw such overwhelming poverty and I'm so so sad that we can't bring a child home to a loving half-Bangla family.

Your article is much appreciated and I concur completely!

Warm Regards,
Kella

Monica09's picture

Thank you!

Dear Ms. Kella,

Thank you for taking the time to read my article and to leave a comment!

I am sorry to hear you were unable to adopt a child from Bangladesh, but I hope the scenario here changes soon enough.

People like you who want to share resources with the deprived give me much hope! I wish we had connected before submitting this article so I could include your story in it.

I hope I can rally on this issue enough to get the attention of policy-makers and citizens. Laws should change, social attitude towards adoption should change.

Warmly,
Monica

Zoepiliafas's picture

Monica, This is disturbing

Monica,

This is disturbing news to me! What do you think the 1st steps to changing this is?

Warm Regards,

Zoe

Zoe Piliafas

Voices of Our Future Community Manager
World Pulse

Monica09's picture

Awareness - first step

Dear Zoe,

There are two problems associated with adoption:

1) cultural
2) legal

To tackle the cultural stigma, we could start creating awareness maybe through videos which show adoption in a positive light. (Thanks to Module-4, I am all for film-making as a means of social change!)

To tackle the legal problem: A uniform law that recognizes adoption in and from Bangladesh and is not bogged down by bureaucracy or religious extremism is a prerequisite to that end.

Maybe organizations such as BNWLA could design a plan and push the agenda. I will send this article to BNWLA and see what the lawyers have to say about it.

Regards,
Monica

Lehner's picture

Dear Monica, We share a name!

Dear Monica,

We share a name! I don't run into to many 'Monicas' in the USA. Your article is very well crafted and written. WOW! It is also an informative and inspiring piece. Thank you for sharing this with all of us. I wish you inspiration in your writing life.

Warmly,

Monica

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