Community Update

Digital Empowerment Toolkit Now Available!

At World Pulse, we recognize the need for ongoing learning—for you and for your community! Our toolkits aim to provide the resources you need to advance your social change work.

We are excited to introduce our Digital Empowerment Trainers’ Toolkit, a dynamic resource to help you bring the benefits of connecting online to women in your community. Check it out today! »

parité homme femme une réalité?

quelques dates clés

1791 : Déclaration des droits de la femme et de la citoyenne d’Olympe de Gouges, dont le préambule commence ainsi : "Les mères, les filles, les soeurs, représentantes de la nation, demandent d’être constituées en Assemblée nationale".

1804 : Le Code civil donne aux femmes des droits civils mais leur refuse les droits politiques.

1893 : Octroi du droit de vote aux femmes en Nouvelle-Zélande, premier pays au monde à l’accorder ; la Grande-Bretagne (pour les femmes de plus de 30 ans jusqu’en 1928) , la Suède et l’Allemagne l’accordent en 1918, le Canada et les Pays-Bas en 1919, les États-Unis en 1920 (quelques États l’avaient déjà adopté avant ).

21 avril 1944 : L’ordonnance d’Alger accorde le droit de vote aux femmes françaises.

27 octobre 1946 : Le préambule de la constitution proclame : "La loi garantit à la femme, dans tous les domaines, des droits égaux à ceux de l’homme" (art.3) .

8 juillet 1999 : Une révision constitutionnelle ajoute à l’article 3 de la Constitution de 1958 la disposition suivante "la loi favorise l’égal accès des femmes et des hommes aux mandats électoraux et aux fonctions électives" et prévoit que les partis doivent "contribuer à la mise en oeuvre" de ce principe (art. 4).

6 juin 2000 : La loi sur la parité en politique module l’aide publique aux partis politiques en fonction de leur respect de l’application de la parité pour la présentation des candidats aux élections.

9 mai 2001 : La loi Génisson sur l’égalité professionnelle entre les femmes et les hommes poursuit dans une direction amorcée par la loi Roudy du 13 juillet 1983.

1er mars 2004 : signature par le patronat et les syndicats de l’Accord national interprofessionnel relatif à la mixité et à l’égalité professionnelles entre les hommes et les femmes.

23 mars 2006 : La loi relative à l’égalité salariale entre les femmes et les hommes renforce les moyens et engagements concernant la suppression des écarts de rémunération entre les femmes et les hommes, et la "conciliation" entre l’activité professionnelle et la vie familiale.

4 avril 2006 : Loi qui renforce la prévention et la répression des violences au sein du couple ou commises contre les mineurs.

23 juillet 2008 : Modification de l’article 1 de la Constitution qui est désormais ainsi rédigé : "La loi favorise l’égal accès des femmes et des hommes aux mandats électoraux et fonctions électives, ainsi qu’aux responsabilités professionnelles et sociales".

27 janvier 2011 : Promulgation de la loi relative à la représentation équilibrée des femmes et des hommes au sein des conseils d’administration et de surveillance et à l’égalité professionnelle. Ce texte prévoit l’instauration progressive de quotas pour aller vers la féminisation des instances dirigeantes des grandes entreprises, ainsi qu’un système de sanctions financières en cas de non-respect.

6 août 2012 : loi relative au harcèlement sexuel.

30 novembre 2012 : le Comité interministériel aux droits des femmes et à l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, qui ne s’était pas réuni depuis 12 ans, inaugure l’élaboration d’une troisième génération des droits des femmes. Après les droits civiques reconnus à la Libération, les droits économiques et sociaux des années 1970, il s’agit désormais de définir des droits porteurs d’égalité réelle
Quelques pistes de réflexion

Depuis 200 ans, la parité entre les hommes et les femmes n’a cessé de progresser

Si la parité désigne une égalité générale entre les hommes et les femmes, elle prend un sens plus restreint en s’appliquant parfois à la seule vie politique.
Même si certaines femmes ont occupé une place très importante dans l’histoire de la France, jusqu’au XXe siècle, le rôle politique de la femme n’a pas été favorisé . La Révolution n’a ainsi rien fait pour reconnaître ni a fortiori valoriser la place des femmes au-delà de leurs rôles traditionnels (épouse, mère), sinon en leur reconnaissant quelques droits civils.
L’histoire politique et sociale depuis 1789 reflète un mouvement d’émancipation progressif des femmes : protection contre le travail abusif au nom de leur rôle de mère, protection contre l’époux , reconnaissance d’un statut civil propre, octroi des droits politiques , ouverture progressive des études et des emplois aux femmes , loi sur l’interruption volontaire de grossesse (1975).
Dernière étape, en France, plusieurs textes ont été adoptés pour favoriser la place des femmes dans la vie politique. Après un échec en 1982, la révision constitutionnelle de 1999, complétée par la loi du 6 juin 2000, a ouvert la voie à des réformes législatives destinées à imposer les femmes dans la vie politique et sociale.

Cependant, de nombreux efforts restent à accomplir en vue d’une parité plus complète
Malgré les réformes et d’évidents progrès, les femmes restent encore minoritaires parmi nos élus (à l’encontre de nombreux pays occidentaux). Si la loi sur la parité a permis de faire élire beaucoup plus de femmes dans les conseils municipaux (35,8 % des conseillers municipaux élus au scrutin de mars 2008) et régionaux (48,3 % de femmes au 31 décembre 2010), celles-ci n’ont pas forcément accédé à des fonctions de responsabilité locale (seulement 14,2 % des maires au 31 décembre 2010).

Dans les conseils généraux, les résultats sont pour l’instant décevants (12,9 % des conseillers généraux sont des femmes au 31 décembre 2010).

À l’échelon national, on ne compte encore que 18,5 % de femmes à l’Assemblée nationale et 21,8 % au Sénat.
De même, dans les entreprises ou dans la haute fonction publique, les femmes restent très minoritaires aux niveaux de direction.
Bien que proportionnellement plus nombreuses que les hommes à accéder aux études supérieures, les femmes demeurent moins présentes dans les filières les plus cotées, subissent davantage le chômage, le temps partiel non choisi. L’écart des salaires moyens est aussi en leur défaveur.
Si les femmes sont désavantagées par rapport aux hommes, cela tient au regard porté sur elles par la société. Cependant, il n’est pas sûr que la contrainte puisse imposer un renversement de tendance.

Des questions de fond demeurent sur le bien fondé de mesures coercitives en la matière
Le législateur a pris des mesures coercitives, pariant sur la discrimination positive en faveur des femmes, notamment en politique, pour une parité effective. Mais le débat demeure et jette un doute que certaines femmes, elles-mêmes, regrettent. L’électeur choisit-il une femme pour ses qualités personnelles ou pour sa qualité de femme ? Figure-t-elle sur une liste de candidats en position éligible pour ses compétences ou parce que c’est obligatoire ?
Par ailleurs, certains s’interrogent sur le bien-fondé d’un modèle égalisateur qui nierait les différences entre les hommes et les femmes. Ainsi, lorsque la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme contraint la France à autoriser le travail de nuit des femmes, strictement encadré depuis le XIXe siècle, certains se sont interrogés sur le progrès que cela représentait, tandis que d’autres mettaient en avant le respect de l’égalité de traitement entre hommes et femmes.
La question de la parité renvoie donc à des choix de société, par-delà la représentation politique, dont le rôle moteur a justifié un traitement spécifique. La loi a ainsi récemment égalisé l’autorité parentale ou renforcé la place du père dans l’éducation des enfants. La parité constitue donc un mouvement de fond favorable aux femmes en tant qu’individus, mais aussi une source profonde de modification de la place des femmes dans la société. Il paraît difficile d’aller plus loin sur un plan législatif, et ce sont plutôt certains comportements ou visions de la société qu’il convient de faire évoluer. Lles droits étant les mêmes, reste à les faire comprendre, accepter et appliquer.
Enfin, la lutte pour la parité apparaît comme une question propre aux pays développés, alors que dans de nombreux États la femme n’a même pas encore acquis un minimum de droits civils. La dimension internationale du combat conduit sans doute la France à "montrer l’exemple

English translation by community member MESSA

SOME IMPORTANT DATES

1971: Declaration on Women’s and citizen’s Rights of Olympe de Gouges, which has the following preamble: ‘mothers, daughters, sisters, the nation’s representatives, wish to be form a National Assembly’
1804: the Civil Code give women Civil Rights but refuse them Political Rights
1893 : women gain the Right to Vote in new Zealand, the first country of the world to do so followed by Great Britain (for women of more than 30 years in 1928) Sweden and Germany follow in 1918, Canada and the Netherlands in 1919, the United States in 1920 (some states had done so before then)
21 April 1944: the Order of Alger gives French women the Right to Vote.
27 October 1946: the preamble of the constitution declares: ‘the law guarantees the woman, in every domain, equal rights like men’ (Art. iii).
8 July 1999: a constitutional amendment add to article 3 of the 1958 constitution the following provision: ‘the law favours equal access of both men and women to electoral mandate and to elective functions’ and provides that parties must ‘contribute to the implementation’ of the said principle (art. 4)
6 June 2000: the law on political parity modulate public aid to political parties according to their respect to the implementation of equality for the representation of candidates at elections.
9 May 2001: the Génisson law on professional equality between women and men is followed by the Roudy law of 13 July 1983.
1st March 2004: The signing of the employers and trade unions of the national inter professional accord in relation to professional equality between men and women.
23 March 2006: the law for salary equality between men and women reinforces means and commitments to the end of different remuneration between men and women and the conciliation between professional and family activities
4 April 2006: the law which reinforces the prevention and repression of violence within a couple or against minors.
23 July 2008: amendment to Article 1 of the constitution which now states : ‘the law promotes equal access of men and women to electoral mandates and electing functions, as well as to professional and social responsibilities’.
27 January 2011: promotion of the law on the balance representation of women and men in the board of directors and surveillance and to professional equality. This text plans the progressive instauration of quotas towards the feminisation of posts of authority in large firms, as well as a system of financial sanctions in case of failure to comply.
6 august 2012: the law relating to sexual harassment
30 November 2012 : the inter ministerial committee on women’s rights and equality between men and women , which had not held for 12 years, inaugurated the drafting of a third generation women’s rights. After civil Rights recognized during Liberation, economical and social laws of the 1970s, it’s the turn of real equality laws.
Points of reflection
For 200 years now, equality between women and men has continued to evolve.
If parity refers to equality between men and women, it restricts its meaning which only applies to political life. Even though some women have occupied posts of responsibility in the history of France until the XX century, the political role of the woman have not been promoted. Revolution has not helped in reshaping the image of the woman above its traditional role of wife and mother, if not of giving them some civil rights. Political and social history since 1789 reflects a progressive emancipation movement of women: protection against excessive labour in the name of their role as mothers, protection against the partner, recognition of a suitable civil status, achievement of political rights, progressive accession to studies and employment of women, the law on the voluntary termination of pregnancies (1975).
The last step in France has been the adoption of several texts to favour the condition of the woman in political life. After failing in 1982, the 1999 constitutional amendment, complemented by the law of 6 June 200, has paved the way for legislative reforms meant to impose women in the political and social life.
However, much more needs to be done to achieve complete parity. Despite reforms and evident progress, women still form the minority among our elite (this is different in several western countries). If law on parity has enabled many more women to be elected in municipal councils, (35.8% of municipal councillors voted during the Mars 2008 poll) and regional (48.3% of women in December 2010), they have not still gotten into local posts of responsibility (only 14,2% of mayors on the 31st of December 2010).
In General Councils, results are disappointing (12.9% of General Councillors are women in December 31, 2010).
At the national level, there are only 18, 5% of women at the national Assembly and 21,8 at the Senate.
In the same line, firms or public service, women are the minority at the Directions.
Even though they are greater in number than men in to undertake Higher studies, women are less represented in highly revered posts, and are more unemployed or are under paid. If women are disadvantaged in relation to men, it’s because of the place she occupies in the society. And it’s not certain to reverse such a situation.
The main questions lie on coercive methods concerning the subject matter. The legislation has taken coercive methods favouring positive discrimination of women notably in politics and effective parity. But the debate is still on and creates doubt which is regrettable to some women. Does the voter vote for the woman because of her personal qualities or because of her qualities as a woman? Does she appear on the candidate’s list because she deserves to or is it because it’s an obligation? On the other hand, some question equality moves which do not consider differences between men and women. In this light, when the European supreme court on Human’s rights compels France to authorise night work for women, a situation strictly considered since the 19th century, some have questioned such a progress, while others were pushing forward the issue of equality between men and women.
The parity question therefore is subject to the choices of the society, which goes above political representation, which is justified in a certain way. The law has recently equalised parental responsibility and highlighted the role of the father in a child’s education. Equality clearly constitutes a favourable endeavour for women s individuals and also a great influence on the modification of the place of the woman in the society which must keep up evolving. Since laws are the same, they need to be understood, accepted and explained.

At last, the fight for equality appears to be one reserved to Developed countries meanwhile in various states the woman has not yet received a minimum of civil rights. The international dimension of the fight has placed France as the example to follow.

This story was written for World Pulse’s Girls Transform the World Digital Action Campaign.

World Pulse believes that women's stories, recommendations, and collective rising leadership can—and will—bring girls greater access to education which will transform their lives, their families, and communities. The Girls Transform Campaign elicits insightful content from young women on the ground, strengthens their confidence as women, and ensures that influencers and powerful institutions hear their stories.
Learn more »

Comments

MESSA's picture

parité homme femme une réalité?

Bonjour Bénédicte,

Une fois de plus merci d'avoir pris la peine de lever ta voix pour faire part de ta pensée au monde entier.

Se fut fascinant de te lire et d'explorer tous les angles a travers lesquelles tu as développée ta pensée.

Enfin, j'ai fini par comprendre que les questions de genre sont particulières et subtiles et pour les adresser, il faut beaucoup de tact pour ne pas sombrer dans l'incompréhension. Surtout, je conviens aussi avec toi que la femme doit tenir compte de son contexte et se battre dans cette lancée.

Se fut un plaisir de te lire. Tout de même, je voudrais te demander une faveur. En écrivant vos articles, je vous prie de faire un peu de synthèse pour ne pas vous répéter et pour aussi faciliter les travaux de traduction.

Cordialement,
MESSA

Ghnadi un jour a dit, tout finira bien par s'arranger, et si tout ne s'arrange pas, ce que ce n'est pas encore la fin. Femme, garde espoir!!!!

Ghandi once said it will all get well at the end, and if it doesn't get well, then it is not yet the end.
Wo

MESSA's picture

Translation

SOME IMPORTANT DATES

1971: Declaration on Women’s and citizen’s Rights of Olympe de Gouges, which has the following preamble: ‘mothers, daughters, sisters, the nation’s representatives, wish to be form a National Assembly’
1804: the Civil Code give women Civil Rights but refuse them Political Rights
1893 : women gain the Right to Vote in new Zealand, the first country of the world to do so followed by Great Britain (for women of more than 30 years in 1928) Sweden and Germany follow in 1918, Canada and the Netherlands in 1919, the United States in 1920 (some states had done so before then)
21 April 1944: the Order of Alger gives French women the Right to Vote.
27 October 1946: the preamble of the constitution declares: ‘the law guarantees the woman, in every domain, equal rights like men’ (Art. iii).
8 July 1999: a constitutional amendment add to article 3 of the 1958 constitution the following provision: ‘the law favours equal access of both men and women to electoral mandate and to elective functions’ and provides that parties must ‘contribute to the implementation’ of the said principle (art. 4)
6 June 2000: the law on political parity modulate public aid to political parties according to their respect to the implementation of equality for the representation of candidates at elections.
9 May 2001: the Génisson law on professional equality between women and men is followed by the Roudy law of 13 July 1983.
1st March 2004: The signing of the employers and trade unions of the national inter professional accord in relation to professional equality between men and women.
23 March 2006: the law for salary equality between men and women reinforces means and commitments to the end of different remuneration between men and women and the conciliation between professional and family activities
4 April 2006: the law which reinforces the prevention and repression of violence within a couple or against minors.
23 July 2008: amendment to Article 1 of the constitution which now states : ‘the law promotes equal access of men and women to electoral mandates and electing functions, as well as to professional and social responsibilities’.
27 January 2011: promotion of the law on the balance representation of women and men in the board of directors and surveillance and to professional equality. This text plans the progressive instauration of quotas towards the feminisation of posts of authority in large firms, as well as a system of financial sanctions in case of failure to comply.
6 august 2012: the law relating to sexual harassment
30 November 2012 : the inter ministerial committee on women’s rights and equality between men and women , which had not held for 12 years, inaugurated the drafting of a third generation women’s rights. After civil Rights recognized during Liberation, economical and social laws of the 1970s, it’s the turn of real equality laws.
Points of reflection
For 200 years now, equality between women and men has continued to evolve.
If parity refers to equality between men and women, it restricts its meaning which only applies to political life. Even though some women have occupied posts of responsibility in the history of France until the XX century, the political role of the woman have not been promoted. Revolution has not helped in reshaping the image of the woman above its traditional role of wife and mother, if not of giving them some civil rights. Political and social history since 1789 reflects a progressive emancipation movement of women: protection against excessive labour in the name of their role as mothers, protection against the partner, recognition of a suitable civil status, achievement of political rights, progressive accession to studies and employment of women, the law on the voluntary termination of pregnancies (1975).
The last step in France has been the adoption of several texts to favour the condition of the woman in political life. After failing in 1982, the 1999 constitutional amendment, complemented by the law of 6 June 200, has paved the way for legislative reforms meant to impose women in the political and social life.
However, much more needs to be done to achieve complete parity. Despite reforms and evident progress, women still form the minority among our elite (this is different in several western countries). If law on parity has enabled many more women to be elected in municipal councils, (35.8% of municipal councillors voted during the Mars 2008 poll) and regional (48.3% of women in December 2010), they have not still gotten into local posts of responsibility (only 14,2% of mayors on the 31st of December 2010).
In General Councils, results are disappointing (12.9% of General Councillors are women in December 31, 2010).
At the national level, there are only 18, 5% of women at the national Assembly and 21,8 at the Senate.
In the same line, firms or public service, women are the minority at the Directions.
Even though they are greater in number than men in to undertake Higher studies, women are less represented in highly revered posts, and are more unemployed or are under paid. If women are disadvantaged in relation to men, it’s because of the place she occupies in the society. And it’s not certain to reverse such a situation.
The main questions lie on coercive methods concerning the subject matter. The legislation has taken coercive methods favouring positive discrimination of women notably in politics and effective parity. But the debate is still on and creates doubt which is regrettable to some women. Does the voter vote for the woman because of her personal qualities or because of her qualities as a woman? Does she appear on the candidate’s list because she deserves to or is it because it’s an obligation? On the other hand, some question equality moves which do not consider differences between men and women. In this light, when the European supreme court on Human’s rights compels France to authorise night work for women, a situation strictly considered since the 19th century, some have questioned such a progress, while others were pushing forward the issue of equality between men and women.
The parity question therefore is subject to the choices of the society, which goes above political representation, which is justified in a certain way. The law has recently equalised parental responsibility and highlighted the role of the father in a child’s education. Equality clearly constitutes a favourable endeavour for women s individuals and also a great influence on the modification of the place of the woman in the society which must keep up evolving. Since laws are the same, they need to be understood, accepted and explained.

At last, the fight for equality appears to be one reserved to Developed countries meanwhile in various states the woman has not yet received a minimum of civil rights. The international dimension of the fight has placed France as the example to follow.

Ghnadi un jour a dit, tout finira bien par s'arranger, et si tout ne s'arrange pas, ce que ce n'est pas encore la fin. Femme, garde espoir!!!!

Ghandi once said it will all get well at the end, and if it doesn't get well, then it is not yet the end.
Wo

Magazine »

Read global coverage through women's eyes

Inside Congo's Growing Sisterhood

Inside Congo's Growing Sisterhood

Community »

Connect with women on the ground worldwide

PAKISTAN: They Went to School and Never Came Back

PAKISTAN: They Went to School and Never Came Back

Campaigns »

Be heard at influential forums

WWW: Women Weave the Web

WWW: Women Weave the Web

Programs »

Help us train women citizen journalists

World Pulse Voices of Our Future

World Pulse Voices of Our Future

Blog »

Read the latest from World Pulse headquarters

Announcing Our Prize Winners!

Announcing Our Prize Winners!

Partners »

Join forces with our wide network of partners

Nobel Women's Initiative

Nobel Women's Initiative