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Barred from justice

John Rawls, a philosopher from Harvard, in his classic work ‘A Theory of Justice’ states that"Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought.” I believe justice shouldn’t be the benevolent act of a despot to a nation of suffering citizens but the ultimate expression and recognition of the humanity in human beings. Justice should be about fairness and the availability of appropriate remedies to anyone wronged and seeking that remedy to help them feel whole again. Justice must respond to the needs of victims. The state of justice in Zimbabwe is far from this ideal and I have good reason to reach this conclusion.

Personal intimidation
It was in June 2008, when Zimbabwe witnessed the highest levels of political violence before the Presidential election runoff. I was working for the Research and Advocacy Unit, documenting and advocating an end to, organised violence and torture, when state security agents from the PISI Unit visited our offices. Fortunately warning bells had been triggered by state security visits to out partner organisation, the Zimbabwe Human Rights Forum’s offices. Having collaborated with them in documenting electoral violence and monitoring the March 2008 elections, we were expecting trouble. The Director of our organisation was summoned for interrogation about the nature of our work and the legality of our existence as an organisation. Although he was released the same day, we were filled with trepidation. I was terrified, because a visit from these guys would likely result in arrest and detention and I did not want to be in Zimbabwe’s filthy prisons in June, in the dead of the winter. We quickly relocated to a discreet location. Of course we could not report the incident to the police; what would they have done for us when it was one of their units that had visited us? The perpetrators did this with the full knowledge that nothing would happen to them. Who would dare question their authority?

Attacks on my mother
Previously, in 2004, in the run up to the 2005 Parliamentary election I nearly lost my mother. Having lived through the period of the liberation struggle, my mother is a strong supporter of ZANU-PF, the political party that has been in power in Zimbabwe since the country’s independence in 1980. She also says she supports it because it represents the ideal that her first cousin (by marriage) and one of Zimbabwe’s liberation war heroes Josiah Tongogara pioneered; that of black empowerment. I completely agree with this ideal, but as I always tell her I do not support her party because of the methods and means through which it seeks to implement this ideal.

So, where there is more than one candidate representing the same party in one constituency, a primary election must be held to choose a candidate. In her party, my mother supported a candidate different from other members’ choice. In a display of intolerance, she was expected to agree with the other people. When she stood her ground, supporting the candidate of her choice, bad blood developed between her and other party members and at one of the party meetings she was attacked with stones by one of the youths. The stones hit her in the ribs. The doctor’s report explained that the injuries my mother sustained resulted in a kidney infection. The kidney infection nearly killed her. I was paralysed with fear when I received the call from my teary big sister while I was in college, telling me that Mummy was seriously ill and I had to go see her. We would all stare at her pale face, contorted in pain and wonder if she would make it.

Her attack occurred in the presence of the political leadership in the area, the police and other community members but to date the youth responsible for this injustice has not been held responsible for his actions. Supposedly, all is fair in the game of politics?

So, yes, my mother was a primary victim while I became a secondary victim of intra-party political violence. I have also been a direct victim of state intimidation. For the injuries my mother suffered and the trauma I endured when I thought I would lose my parent, I want justice. But this justice is not forthcoming.

The context
I am not the only Zimbabwean seeking justice who feels barred from such justice. In addition to intra-party political violence, Zimbabwe also experienced inter-party political violence, especially between ZANU-PF and MDC parties. In addition, human rights defenders were targets of state sponsored intimidation and violence. There are many victims. The criminal justice system is inaccessible because victims cannot report their cases to the police out of fear or because the police refuse to investigate the violations. NGOs conducting public interest litigation such as Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights and the Zimbabwe NGO Forum have filed civil suits on behalf of victims but the recipients of such assistance are few. Other organisations such as the Counselling Services Unit and Zimbabwe Association of Doctors for Human Rights have given medical assistance and counselling, while the Tree of Life process is facilitating healing for victims but these are all ad hoc and pretty disjointed initiatives. The ultimate responsibility to device a strategy to deliver justice lies with the state.

There is no political will to deliver justice. Consequently, crimes are committed with impunity. The desire for justice remains a mere aspiration that lives in the minds and thoughts of the nation but cannot be realised. It may wag on the tongues of a few politicians, giving false hope but this idel talk never concretises into action. The mere expression of a desire for justice is often misconstrued as unpatriotic and perceived as a direct challenge to those in authority, fully aware of their roles in the commission of violence and fearing exposure. In Shona we have a saying that goes “Avhunduka chati kwatara ndeane katurikwa” meaning “Those with no skeletons in their cupboards are not afraid.”

It is clear that Zimbabwe needs justice. As Mai Chido, from rural Gutu in the Masvingo Province said to me, “Zviripachena kuti zvinhu zvakanga zvisina kumira mushe muna 2008 pamaharmonised elections. Nokudaro panofanirwa kugadziriswa kuti nyika yedu igarike zvakanaka,” - “It is clear to all and sundry that in 2008, the year of the harmonised Municipal, Parliamentary and Presidential elections, things were not well. There is need to address these issues so that our country can be habitable again.”

My fight for justice in my activism for the total emancipation and empowerment of women in my community is unending. I ponder over what needs to be done to address Zimbabwe past and present; A nation full of scars, unresolved questions and mysteries. Some of the wounds run so deep that people suffer from post traumatic stress disorders. Women were raped during the liberation struggle, were raped during elections, in politically motivated circumstances and continue to be raped. Women, like my mother have been assaulted. None but a few of them have accessed justice; justice that I need to see happening as much as I have seen their physical and psychological wounds.

People need to understand that without justice the woman next door who now acts ‘cuckoo’ but used to be perfectly normal until a group of soldiers raped her, inserted chilly peppers into her private parts and left her for dead will never heal? They must understand that a blanket act of coming together to force a reconciliation where there isn’t forgiveness will never make this woman sane. How does she heal when she still sees her perpetrators walking around free? How does she find peace when they threaten to repeat what they did to her before? How do we as Zimbabweans confront decades of violence and repression when they are still ongoing?

My idea of justice
I do not want to embroil myself in debunking the myth or reality of the concept of transitional justice. That terminology has been passed around too many times giving it different definitions and meanings. It has raised questions of what mechanism is most effective, what mechanism can realistically be meted to victims and whether it is possible to give ALL victims a remedy. In the case of Zimbabwe technical questions arise. In one discussion forum Tendai, a colleague asked; “Are we even in a state of transition to talk of transitional justice?” This creates unnecessary complications in delivering justice.

What is clear to me is that I, just like any other Zimbabwean who has suffered the effects of repression and impunity, want justice. I want the person who hurt my mother or the government to pay for the medication that she buys to take care of her kidneys. I also want reforms executed to the security sector so that I can live without fear of unwarranted and unlawful arrest, detention or forced disappearance. Those officials who came intimidating my colleagues and I should face disciplinary measures. The police who beat up human rights activists should tell the truth of who sent them, why they did it and issue a public apology. I want medical care to be awarded to all victims of violence. I need the removal of barriers to access to justice. If I get raped, God forbid, I want to be able to report my case to the police without getting harassed. I need the person I report to be arrested notwithstanding his/her political affiliation.

Existing Policy Framework
When Zimbabwe came under the governance of the Inclusive Government in terms of the Global Political Agreement in 2008, Article 7.1 of that agreement provided for the creation of a body to properly advise on the necessary and practicable mechanisms to achieve national healing, cohesion and unity in respect of victims of pre and post independence political conflicts. The Organ on National Healing, Reconciliation and Integration was formed for this purpose.

Although this Organ has been in existence for three years now, there is still no clarity on the strategy through which it is engaging the nation. The dominant and visible method has been the traditional process of kuputidzana fodya (sharing the pipe), where victims and perpetrators sit together, sharing a tobacco pipe in a symbolic act of reconciliation. This strategy appears to be shaped by decree rather than by design since its implementation was not preceded by any meaningful consultation amongst the victims themselves about what sort of remedy they want.

Many people do not see this process succeeding in giving victims an appropriate remedy. “How can it (the Organ) be effective when no one has come to us asking us what we think,” says Nokhuthula a Gwanda resident in the Matebeleland South Province of Zimbabwe.

Justice becomes more elusive as women continue to suffer, with crimes such as political violence continuously perpetrated with impunity. The need to address this gap is fundamental to both the physical and psychological well being of women. Women’s views on the remedy they want and need must be clearly articulated in a free and democratic space. These articulated views must be acted upon in order to prove a willingness to curb the recurrence of violations against women.

The notions of ‘freedom, justice and equality’ must cease to be viewed as stratospheric expectations. They are attainable elements fundamental to the progressive development of Zimbabwean society; if only the political will to see to it that they do was present.

Women as the majority of victims, across political divides, need justice. Such justice would include identifying perpetrators and prosecuting them but realistically that will not happen soon, given the existing political landscape. Surely; fully acknowledging that a wrong was done, providing healing to victims, giving them effective medical care and providing psycho-social support would be an instrumental starting point at the moment. The damage that violence has caused to men as well, which may perpetuate the cycles of violence as they act out of their rage on those who are weaker must be addressed through counselling.

This article is part of a writing assignment for Voices of Our Future a program of World Pulse that provides rigorous new media and citizen journalism training for grassroots women leaders. World Pulse lifts and unites the voices of women from some of the most unheard regions of the world.



Stella Paul's picture

And there you are!

I completed my assignment, and my first thought turned towards you; I wanted to read your post. And now here it is! Congrats on catching the train right on time.
Moving on, impunity was,and continues to be the monster all across the globe, adding to the woes of the victims of political, social and gender violence. In fact in the growing stature of impunity, justice seems impossible because survival itself becomes a gigantic task.
I am happy that both you and your mother emerged winners in the race of survival and that you have come further ahead, fighting for the eluding justice. Keep batting on! Love

Stella Paul
Twitter: @stellasglobe

MaDube's picture

Hey Stella

I spent the last few days at a Chengeta safari lodge out of Harare and way from easily accessible internet where we were having debriefing sessions and also perfecting our workplan and exploring the gender dynamics in our workplace with my colleagues. It was a good time to reflect on so many issues and I cam back to Harare, renewed and rejuvenated. I caught on to the train, yes...finally.. but it was a hard task. I am sure you can tell that I struggled to make this piece what it is.

Back to the piece itself, thank you for encouraging my mother and I. I however don't feel like we emerged winners because we still have that yearning to see justice done and we still live to see the perpetrators gloating. Yes we will keep fighting for the correction of past injustices but if the impunity enables the continuation of violations then our fight shall be endless. That tends to be depressing sometimes.

Monica Clarke's picture

Hello Rumbi Your piece

Hello Rumbi

Your piece brought back many memories for me, confusing memorie. I sat wondering who we were aligned to in the late seventies, when our ANC Umkhontu soldiers supported Rhodesia. I felt quite out of it - couldn't remember! I thought it was ZAPU coz they supported the Marxist (workers) ideology on which we based our struggle in SA by supporting the trade unions and finding labourite leaders. Then, I get confused again, and thinking of papa Joshua Nkomo wonder where it all went wrong?

Your writing is spot on, your analysis sharp. It gives one a real insight into how far things have to move before we can truly bring freedom, justice and equality from the stratosphere onto the earth, and then, when on the earth, into the womb of mother earth and then, when there, into the wombs of all women so that we can give birth to a new world of fairness for all.

You are lucky to have a mum like yours. She is very fortunate to have a daughter like you. May your vision stay bright for Zimbabwe and especially for the women who are our global hope of a fairer world!

Thank you for your very thought provoking article

Lots of love from Monica in France

Monica Clarke, Writer & Storyteller, bringing human rights alive.
I wish you 'Nangamso', that is: May you continue to do the good work which you do so well.
(A blessing from my ancestors, the Khoikhoi, the first people of South Africa).

MaDube's picture

Dear Monica

Indeed you guys mainly supported ZAPU led by Jason Ziyaphapha Moyo and then by Ubaba Muqabukho, Nyongolo Nkomo later on. I am often discouraged by people who argue that it is not possible and realistic to give justice to every victim but the question I always ask myself is, have we ever tried. I think sometimes our assumptions are based on out belief that justice equals reparation or prosecution which then makes us wonder if we have enough money for compensation or of our judiciary has the capacity to listen to all these numerous cases. Bit we forget that for someone justice is an apology, for another they just want full disclosure of what happened and for another person they want their child sent to school because the breadwinner was killed by the perpetrator. People's idea of justice differs from person to person hence my emphasis on the consultation part of the process of delivering justice.

Chinemu's picture


Continue your hard work, justice shall surely prevail in Zimbabwe some day, great piece

MaDube's picture

Thank you Chinemu. Always

Thank you Chinemu. Always encouraged by your unwavering support.

amiesissoho's picture

it's thought provoking, how

it's thought provoking, how do we get justice? Realizing justice is the first step towards acheiving it. Don't give up.


MaDube's picture

Thank you sis Amie. We shall

Thank you sis Amie. We shall continue to push for the realisation of justice. What we need first is for the politicians to listen. The problem is that they do not listen. They want to prescribe solutions yet they do not have the wounds that need healing.

AmyM's picture


Your article powerfully conveys the terror of living in a nation where people cannot turn to authorities for help because the authorities are often the perpetrators of abuse. You've painted an eye-opening portrait of what it is like to experience injustice and see injustice raining down upon those you love, upon neighbors and friends and colleagues. How infuriating and saddening it must be. Yet your courage and the example set by your mother as she fought for her ideals are so inspiring. You have hope, and you share it in the well-reasoned strategies that can help your nation heal and move forward.

Excellent job.


MaDube's picture

Dear Amy

Thank you for this wonderful feedback and for reading my journal. My own experiences are mild when you compare with what other people have been through but I still find reason to say that what was done to me and my mother should not have happened in the first place.Indeed it is frightening to know that there are people out there who can do what they want with you and you really have nowhere to turn to for help.

I hope the policy changers get to read and understand what I write and adopt and fully implement the strategies that I suggest, which you find well reasoned. I wish you were one of them :-). I would know that change is coming...



Rachael Maddock-Hughes's picture

Great Assignment

Great job! You very well incorporate both your personal experience with seeking justice and the larger framework that affects your personal struggle. Do you have real hope that the situation in Zimbabwe will change any time soon?

Keep up the good work,


"In every human heart there are a few passions that last a lifetime. They're with us from the moment we're born, and nothing can dilute their intensity." Rob Brezny

MaDube's picture

Hi Rachael

I am sitting right now (but am on a tea break) in a training session with Parliamentarians, discussing the issue of torture and whether it will ever cease to be a part of our society. The problem in Zimbabwe is that torture and other forms of violence are linked to the nature of politics. We have developed a violent political culture. The moment we talk of elections then incidences go on the increase. So there is perpetual commission of violations and nothing is done to address past crimes. Until and unless we call a halt to violence with the first step being ending impunity for past crimes, then maybe can we hope for change. At the moment, things look really bleak but efforts to change this are underway. The training I am at is hosted by an umbrella organisation in which RAU, where I wok is a member. We are pushing for members of parliament to understand torture, its causes and consequences and push them to introduce a Private members Bill criminalising torture and also push for the ratification of the Convention Against Torture and the Optional Protocol as well.

WILDKat's picture


"...without justice the woman next door who now acts ‘cuckoo’ but used to be perfectly normal until a group of soldiers raped her, inserted chilly peppers into her private parts and left her for dead will never heal?"

What is this insane inhumanity that wages, rages, stages injustice toward women in the feeble name of power?

Though 5 years old now, you may find wisdom among these TED talks focused on Africa, The Next Chapter.
What do you see as the next chapter in Africa from your Zimbabwean window?

Naturally grateful,
Kat Haber

"Know thyself." ~ Plato

MaDube's picture

Hi Kat

Thanks for your comment. The next Chapter for Zimbabwe is not very clear. It can go in two ways. We may continue in the same trend, with continued violations and zero accountability. But I hope that the discussions that are going on and the lobbying ad advocacy that has been going on for years will lead to some accountability, even if it starts with just giving access to medical attention to victims and putting in place mechanisms to say, NO MORE. It ends here. That may sound like wishful thinking on my part, but I do hope for change.

Judy K's picture

Justice - moving forward

MaDube --
Do you know the following quote from Ghandi - "An eye for an eye makes everyone blind" ?

Your piece shows how difficult it is to realize real "justice." This is especially true when the victimizer is himself a victim. The circle of violence must be broken if Zimbabwe is to move ahead. This will require committments from governments that are built on both the rule of law and compassion. I wonder if this is possible? What do you think?


Judy Kugelmass

MaDube's picture

Hi Judy As I said to Kat and

Hi Judy

As I said to Kat and Rachael above, yes it is possible but only if there is the relevant political will. At the moment, that political will is limited if not absent. So that is why we do a lot of advocacy focused on building and fostering that political will. We have named and shamed perpetrators. We have empowered some victims to demand justice themselves. We have discredited the justice system for being inaccessible in the hope that we may give the judiciary impetus to do something to create an environment that makes justice accessible. The struggle continues and we just hope for the best.

Okeny-Lucia's picture

Justice Will Prevail

Dear MaDube,
Justice will and must prevail.Dictators in Africa want citizens to think in their line.It will not last long this barbaric way of ruling!
Their days are numbered,like here in Kenya now the political mood is high,citizens have been reading the New Constitution and they are taking the Governement to task.They now want to postpone election to March 2013!
I sometimes feel so sad to even think of why do we love inhumanity as a people of Africa? It is just vanity to me!

Thank you for taking me through your most trying moments of your life,it is not easy but we shall bow out.We must continue to seek for justice for the coming generation.

Lucia Buyanza
Reproductive Health

MaDube's picture

Sis Lucia Yes I have been

Sis Lucia

Yes I have been following the events in Kenya very closely. I am especially impressed by the demands by citizens that if there is no justice at home then the International Criminal Court should be given access to the people responsible for the 2007 violence.

Maybe if we could also have that kind of pressure here, but unfortunately Zimbabwe has not ratified the Rome Statute and the Security Council will never pass a Resolution like the one passed in Sudan on Al Bashir because China has vested interests in Zimbabwe, protected by the current regime and so they will use their veto power to stop any indictments to the ICC of individuals protecting these interests.

We have to keep fighting for justice at home and hope for international support.

Jensine's picture

Hold tight to your convictions

Dear MaDube -
Thank you for this incredible piece. What a vivid story and portrayal of the collapse of security and justice, and the personal and spiritual toll this takes. Your personal experiences were compelling and gave the piece authority and power. As a reader we feel your struggle to still believe that justice is possible. I agree with you - it is possible, even though it is long dusty road of determination.

The section is especially powerful when you claim loudly what you want: "I want the person who hurt my mother or the government to pay for the medication that she buys to take care of her kidneys. I also want reforms executed to the security sector so that I can live without fear of unwarranted and unlawful arrest, detention or forced disappearance...."

When you paint your vision with your voice you can help others see what is possible.

Have you heard of the movement called "restorative justice?" It is a form of justice built on community healing. Here is one group that advocates for it . Other countries are exercising it - many coming out of genocide and severe conflict, like Rwanda. You may find it interesting.

As you say, this is the responsibility of the state to ensure systems of justice are in place. But, what can communities do where political transformation is not imminent, and security threats loom? To what extent can communities take healing and reparations in their own hands? And, transform or adopt traditions that no longer serve? Like the passing of the pipe you explain that seems to no longer meet the needs, especially of the victims. Sometimes i dream of the underground networks of women, counseling, healing each other and banding together to press for justice, with strength in numbers. How much secret networking of women is possible under the nose of a tight, corrupt security regime?

I am grateful for you and your unflagging work for women and justice in your beautiful country.


Jensine Larsen
World Pulse

MaDube's picture

Dear Jensine Thank you for

Dear Jensine

Thank you for reading my post and many thanks for your lovely comments.

Interesting point you raise about societies healing each other. In my Feminist Chronicles on my blog, I highlighted a group of women who have started a network that does exactly what you suggest See . They are mainly victims of political rape and they have come together in solidarity to help each other heal. They call themselves Doors of Hope Development Trust. They have a membership from almost all provinces of the country. The only problem is that some people are scared to join them out of fear of the stigmatisation attached to rape as a crime in Zimbabwe. They have received some, but almost negligible support form political parties. Should they grow into the movement they aspire to be, then I believe they are capable of doing a lot to secure (the elusive) justice.

I also think if their methodology can be used for all forms of violence and for men as well, then it will be helpful to developing communities' capacities to create their own from of justice.

I had heard of restorative justice and even wrote an article on the pros and cons of restorative vs retributive justice from women's perspective See I was still young then and my analysis was a bit shallow but I knew the basics of the concept. Thank you for pointing me to this website. I will look into the issue some more.



Dear MaDube,

Thank you so much for your piece. I find it very powerful. Your voice -- and your work -- seem courageous, clear, and strong to me. Your clear knowledge -- of statues, rulings, the system -- is impressive. And I especially appreciate how you weave together your personal story within the context of this larger framework and complex system.

There are so many levels here -- you, your family, NGOs, Parliamentary, the ZANU-PF and MDC parties, the nation as a whole, the culture of violence that has emerged... I hear you clear in your viewpoint -- and also gradually hearing the perspectives of others. In my experience, that's a hallmark of maturity and increasing wisdom. My guess is that this will open more and more for you -- that is, you will more and more hear the voices of others as you also become clearer about what's deeply true for you.

Your piece communicates so much -- thank you.

I hear other things, too, and I may be reading between the lines. It seems as if you're tiring of being a victim in an unjust system, as if that story is somehow not working anymore, even as violent as the system as become. I also hear you becoming more and more of a player who is joining forces with others to co-create change, as hard as that may be. As if you're beginning to say 'no' to victimhood -- respecting that it exists and finding other ways to influence change. I may be off. Does that ring true?

Other thoughts emerge as I read your piece ... things I remember of working in and studying large scale change and movements over the years. For example, one of the things that I've noticed 'pays off' is to pay attention to what's working -- that is, to pay more attention to what's working than to what's not working (even when our brains are more wired for the latter.) I offer that from direct experience. (And there's also good research to back that up.)

I find it can also 'pay off' to pay attention to the narrative at play. How are you framing your experience, as a player committed to justice and change? What words do you find yourself using a lot? What are others' stories? Again...what's working?

I've noticed that the most powerful agents for change and justice seem to hear multiple perspectives with respect and compassion -- that is, to genuinely step into other's shoes, even when we genuinely don't agree. How can we possibly step into the shoes of someone who falls to torture...? I see you on this path. And I also sense that your challenge is about as formidable as they come. I don't have direct experience with Zimbabwe. And through the traveling I have done, I see few other countries that are experiencing the swings and violence (physical and emotional) that I see happening in Zimbabwe. Some of what I hear comes from friends who are part of a remarkable learning village called Kufunda, outside of Harare

I so appreciate the work that you are doing -- and the scale and severity of the context in which you're doing that work. Thank you for your courage, your clarity, and your commitment.



MaDube's picture

Dear Robin

Wow. Your comment has opened my eyes to the worlds of possibilities and manners in which I can broaden my influence in making justice achievable for women in my beautiful country. Thank you.

You are right, I am tired of being a victim, I do not want to fall into the victimhood category, in fact I like to believe I am a survivor who is continuously subjected to a barrage of violations- political, social and economic and I refuse to back down. You are also quite right, I am part of collaborative efforts to see that justice is done. In Zimbabwe any successful strategy to counter violations needs collaborative efforts amongst the different stakeholders. The biggest challenge is that the state, as one of the most influential stakeholders is almost -always uncooperative.

I know the people at Kufunda and the work they do as well which is part of a healing process similar to the Tree of Life process I described in my first assignment. Thank you for pointing them out to me.

One thing I appreciate in your comments is your encouragement for me to be more open to others' experiences and hear their voices and allow that to shape my own experiences and sharpen my own voice. Great advice, again thank you.

Thank you for your support, encouragement and advice.



Greengirl's picture

You've Got It

Dear Madube,
I have missed you so much. Seems it's been like forever, which makes me appreciate the more, the very practical and interactive platform WorldPulse has provided us. Sometimes, I even forget that I have never met you in person. Just a little secret, it would be a dream come true to meet you in person. Did you say Wow?
For reasons I can't explain, I believe in your competence and know you've got what it takes to address the many ugly faces of injustices in Zimbabwe and beyond. You are definitely not a novice as you have tasted victimization yourself. I know someday, with your doggedness all those who have perpetuated and continue to perpetuate oppression against hapless citizens will surely pay someday. It is only a matter of time.
I wish your mum healthy aging!

Lots of love,


MaDube's picture

Sis Ola

How I have missed you too!! Between my work, the VOF assignment, my blog and the bits of time I salvage for my own personal time, I have been extremely busy and I am sorry to say a bit out of touch. I will be more consistent in keeping in touch from now on. I trust you have been well and all is good in your life?

Thank you for your belief in my competence. It encourages me in ways you can not imagine. Positive reinforcement when we do good always steers us to do more good and I will strive to ALWAYS make you proud.

Thank you for your well wishes for my mum. I will convey the message.

Keep well and God Bless.



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