Abolition of the Labour Law Palmshahrh.
Been issued a unified law for personal status of Muslims for the first time in the history of Sudanese legislation issuance (the law of personal status of Muslims in 1991) has been working before this is done under the publications legitimacy issued by the Chief Justice from time to time, have been of such publications, with the legal force of the current law in terms of being legally enforceable, the new legislation is one law holds from cover to cover provisions to be applied, and the text of this law to work Balrajeh of the Hanafi school is not in the rule of the law. And thus became a number of laws governing personal status issues in Sudan, there are the personal status laws for Muslims and there are laws of personal status for non-Muslims and there is a law on civil marriage for the year 1926 and there is the customary laws that govern some of the communities have indicated article (5) of the Rules of Civil Procedure of 1929, this multi- When stipulates that govern matters of personal status in Sudan either by the provisions of Islamic law, or usages between opponents provided they are not contrary to justice and good conscience and not have been canceled, or the adoption of invalidity has added the Civil Transactions Act of 1984 and the Code of Civil Procedure of 1984 in Article (78) a new condition which do not violate norms of the rules of Islamic law and the word custom here extended to include provisions from the customs and traditions and different religions with some briefly because of the extreme tightness in the information and studies that addressed these issues. It can be recalled Alybed remarks about the personal laws of non-Muslims:
- The nature of the Sudanese state itself, which is dominated by the doctrine of Islam and thus became a primary source with regard to legislative to personal status.
- There is a difficulty in learning about the laws governing personal status of non-Muslims, which are subject to multiple religions and customs of Sudan as a country of many religions and customs.
- There is a significant lack of studies, research and literature on the personal status of non-Muslims.
It could be argued that the laws in September caused the Sudanese community in the great irony, as it had been issued under the so-called revolution of legislative time to implement Islamic law, and while the conditions of political oppression and tyranny of political and economic conditions growing worse because of the tragedy of desertification and drought at the time, and the reality of a social complex and disparate, Laws were passed into law in September to re-sponsor the situation to normal, but the Sudanese community and the Sudanese women have pushed a heavy price. The concept, which was reduced to morality in the concept of masculine women, no doubt, his standing in the background of mental Sudanese legislator, when the age of some of the texts of the laws of personal status, and the family was on the date of the legislation along the Sudanese do not have a source other than Islamic law or custom, With regard to marriage, for example, and in this, "says Dr. S.. Dolliver Paran," The Marriage Law in the Sudan but is a branch of law which was not guided by the rules of English common law, but legislation has won the Sudanese independent, recognized the idea of polygamy, whether the source of Islamic law or custom .
Kmasagt law of personal status of women's right to custody of her children if her marriage even if they exceed the age of her child for months that any baby, and did not fall for the right man in the case of his marriage. And not used by the evidence in the case of physician request for divorce because of husband's chronic illness or contagious and did not give it this right only after the passage of lunar years.
The divorce touched announced alibi by advertising means known to the abuse and slander more than interest, is supposed to find another way, is still the procedural aspects of this law follows the Code of Civil Procedure, and therefore there must be a table pleadings legitimacy attached to this law.
Has declined to the law of Personal Status Sudanese from restricting polygamy, although polygamy is one of the biggest Ahdeddalosrh under the economic conditions experienced by Sudanese women, leading to the breakdown of the state and even destroyed, and an affront to the dignity of women and the return for the life of the herd age of harem and slaves and is selfish, unless there were obvious reasons, called for, which calls for the need to restrict pluralism by law are not any except in the cases provided by law.
Civil Marriage Act: It is meant to legislation of this law marriages are arranged among some groups that do not belong to a range of special custom by the addition of neither religion to them and some religious communities that do not have the leadership of religious Sudan and therefore this law excludes people of different faiths to marry in accordance with the provisions as that its provisions do not apply to any marriage is based on pagan customs. This law and decides the minimum age for marriage for women three years and given women the right to spend her marriage contract if they are at one and twenty years must be a sentence of divorce in such marriages. Thus the picture for Sudanese women through the personal laws of non-Muslims from the darker Sabakthma it will Silh stabbed in her humanity and fundamental rights, vulnerable socially, economically and legally a far cry from what is protected by his international human rights
2 - Women and the Public Order Act:
The Public Order Act Sudanese of the most laws discriminate against Sudanese women for violating the fundamental freedoms of the citizen's right to enjoy them .. The objective of the law, working women and student in particular, and as if he had the age of oppression and humiliation and restriction of their freedom and isolate it from participating in public life has seen the application of this law excesses of the legal proceedings, where are the public order police are enacting and implementing it .. Where are located on the estimates of police system of public self and perhaps temperament profile, and the trials Alaajazah which are made in the courts of public order, characterized by urgency and not wait, were made even in the holidays or late hours of the night, also denied trials Alaajazah the right to appeal Aohak bring in witnesses , they are mostly prematurity of the action is incompatible with the requirements of justice, Vdilaan therefore eliminated from the law status of public and abstract, which must be characterized by the law which limited its application to the State of Khartoum, is the law of the sword hanging over the Sudanese women as we shall see in some texts as models.
Under the rule a / Baali (ban mixed dancing between men and women, the prohibition of dancing women before men) is this text ignorance complete components reality of Sudan which is characterized by diversity and plurality, which represents the collective essential feature for all the religious rites of the horn, or marriage, or harvest, combined with dance , and excludes any implication of the relationship between men and women.
As stated in Article 9/1/1 of the law: indispensability of the allocation of a door, and ten seats for women in public transport. In M / 9 / 1 / B, prohibit the seating of men in places of women and prohibits women to sit in the places of men), the norm of power in dealing with any problem They are interested in veneers without roots, and the allocation of ten seats is not a solution to the transport crisis that has caused harassment to all citizens, men and women, and ten seats are not sufficient numbers of women are enormous, addressing the problem of transportation is by addressing the comprehensive political to this problem in all its aspects, and assistance should be targeted the infirm, the sick and the elderly, has seen women's organizations, the Sudanese purpose is to limit women's movement and restricting their movement to isolate it from participating in aspects of public life, and habit of authority of the government rescue the current in the Sudan to obliterate all signs of personal Sudan and the characteristics of noble in the pride and magnanimity punished by this law if a man cleared his place for a woman to sit upon, Kmatdkhal this law in the way a woman wearing Sudanese where exposed to the skin just to the uniform according to estimates by police of public order is (illegal), did not respond in the law of any definition of dress legitimate, but did not even agree scholars about uniforms legitimate specific The Islamic groups!! In the view of some women's organizations that dress called the veil, which the State seeks to impose custom when non-Arab Persians, Romans, Greeks, and what still remains are represented by uniforms worn by nuns, and some Coptic women, and it has been the Sudanese women to humiliation and skin because of the confusion identifying uniforms or dress, which is the basis of personal freedoms, which must be respected as long as it is incompatible with the traditions and customs, and perhaps the most famous of these incidents that she has grandchildren University College students on 24/8/1997 m, where the public order police stormed the campus, and took students on buses deportation to a police station spring field, where have been subjected to detention, beatings and humiliation and insult in the further humiliation chosen power of the death penalty, although there are controls for exercise, especially with regard to skin women, and when the skin is the death degrading to humans has been associated, even in the Islamic law of crimes specific and not others. The whole men of law that this Order Act general ambiguous and markedly bad, and was intended to oppression and suppression of freedoms is a (26 mysterious substance truncated poor drafting and formulas and definitions remaining after excluding the regulations and orders governing the work of local councils).
3 - labor laws:
Was the transformation of the Union of studies and joining the teachers' union in 1949 its impact is clear in the development of women's issues within the Kojendh labor laws, which the union responded to many of the issues of working women, and their demands were as follows:
• First full equality in wages.
Raising the level of girls' schools into smaller schools, such as incomplete elementary school boys.
· Unification of the education curriculum.
· Stop the labor law of the Palmshahrh married. The Defence Association parameters for these issues and add a strong support for large demanded by trade unions of the rights of working women. It is the Sudanese Women's Union in 1952, a historic turning point in the course of women's work in Sudan, where given the importance of working women's issues a top priority within the demands and programs, and the adoption of the issues raised by the teachers union strongly increased by: -
· Claim the rights of women in employment opportunities on merit.
· Equal wages in both the north and south.
· Granting full right of working mothers in the maternity leave and lactation.
· Abolition of the Labour Law Palmshahrh.
· Demand for political rights that constitute a safety valve for each of their rights.
Has stood the women's movement Sudanese principled stand alongside the national movement during the struggle for independence and resistance to the military junta first in 1958 earned a respect for the Sudanese community, and the support of all factions of the National Action, foremost writers and intellectuals, some of the other political parties, especially the Communist Party of Sudan's support activities of the liberation of working women, especially the position of principle as there are some party leaders in other parties, had supported women's issues and their fundamental rights, and the effective contribution of women in the events of the October Revolution, a historic turning point in her career, where he led the Women's Federation intensive activity and organized center workers in all areas, which led to their participation in civil disobedience, and political strike and stopped all the women for work of a moment of the strike's political and went out to the street with the vanguard of the October Revolution, and the fruit of this struggle and the principled stance of democracy and the need for social change that the government has acknowledged in October the first the rights of women working full among the claims made by the Women's Federation, which included a full political rights in the nomination and election to all women without discrimination, where he was confined only to the graduates of secondary schools and above the rights of working women came to the list of those rights, including: -
The right to workers in the pension and benefits after service.
· Equality in wages in the north and south, which was passed in 1968 set back the October Revolution and froze the demands of women in general and the demands of working women in particular, as they were not from the interests of the state, but the unity of the political conflict that prevailed in that period did not abolish the agenda of women's own, where the focus of struggle on the rights of working women in a clear, in part, was to create greater solidarity unionist led by the General Federation of Trade Unions at the time on the demands of working women, which had a clear impact in 1969 by the May Regime, where the adoption of all the slogans and demands presented by the Sudanese Women's Union, and the response was full of human women, including the rights of working women, where the legislation issued in 1969.
And the completion of the rights of working women as follows: -
Women's right to pension and benefits after service.
The right to paid maternity leave for 8 weeks.
The right to full equality in training, rehabilitation and promotion.
The right to leave of absence to accompany her husband.
The link between the evolution of labor legislation in Sudan, the course of the evolution of the movement of political, economic and social development of the New Forces, including the trade union movement has always reflected the improved status of women and in that period of the seventies the spirit of bias for women and their issues from the outpost of women in the course of national action year was the Public Service Act, 1973 which absorbed the principles and general objectives of the legislation of international and Arab labor on the organization of the areas of labor and social policies and employment policies and employment has helped women enter significantly in the labor market and market economies in raising feminist consciousness and public awareness of the need for their contribution to production and to be the issues of working women's agenda distinct in that legislation where the decision of the principle of equality guaranteed by the Constitution as a principle inherent in the Sudan since 1968.
But that is no doubt that the laws and legislation do not reflect reality, especially in the issue of women's work becomes a theory only, unless linked to social development of society and should not focus on legislation and laws frequently especially if you do not contribute to the development and social change did not stand against the manifestations of alienation, oppression and underdevelopment, bringing the true measure of the status of women is its role in the economic activity as a productive real part of the productive forces which constitute the relations of production in the economic system as a whole, despite equality in law now, we find that the reality of working women sad due to the nature of the State class and its ideology and forces of social, which depend on them, which reflected negatively the status of women in Sudan, Vtqtat employment contraction in development projects and became equal pay does not make sense in light of deteriorating economic conditions and the meaning of training and rehabilitation in light of the manifestations of alienation, oppression and Saif unfair dismissal suffered by women, although the rights of privileges won by women in Sudan through labor legislation However, the social return it is still weak and not in the size of the aspirations and the actual needs, because the change was not associated with a clear vision was not a strategic goal for any of the economic and social policies, remained women constrained by underdevelopment and manifestations of alienation is not considered work rates have humanitarian value of high-content social There are no ethics reflect the value of working relationships which will reflect negatively on the overall situation of work and the attitude toward working women themselves and the importance of economic and productive activity and the reflection on the role of trade union and its contribution to trade union activity. There are laws that reflect the discrimination against Sudanese women, including:
Companies Act, which does not grant women the right to form the Sudanese company, can only be just, even if the contribution of the owned capital. Not granted a license management theme parks, and clubs, these texts are not based on any legitimate justification.
The law of the movement and traffic: which provides for the granting of any adult Rashid Sudanese driver's license with the owners, while general traffic regulations provide for the granting of women owners of a driver's license only.
Youth and Sports Law:
Sudanese women, which prevents the formation and registration of clubs to sports bodies. Nor the right of frequenting the role of sport except in special cases!! Paradoxically, in the case of the lawsuit to participate in continental competitions, the Authority selected some of the post in an attempt to beautify the face of women's right in Maadi exercise and the formation of entities of their own.
4 - Law of Social Planning:
Omitted in the legislation did not include women widowed in the categories covered by the law, although the level of poverty and the circumstances of the war had created an infinite money from widows.
5 - Public Order Act: that is women's work in the markets and the practice of buying and selling if she is under forty years, until after the dress codes, the text is a violation of its right to act first and call for its deviation lock ports, a living-Sharif before it, comes the paradox in that the authorities give the Seller regardless of their age (card) as a permit, and get them a fee and then comes the practice of Thakmha to work in the markets in these excruciating circumstances.
Resolution 84: Alzyosdrh and to Khartoum on 5/9/2000 m and the banning of women's work in stations selling fuel, cafeterias, hotels, and this decision a violation of Article (21) of the 1998 constitution which gave women the right to work and equal eligibility for public office, The Ministry of Justice issued a legal opinion be canceled decision to Khartoum, so that the Constitution prohibit prejudice to the executive branch it, and that in Article 90 / 2, especially as the criminal law of 1991 could address any practice negative of the right to work, has addressed all the parties and all organizations of women of this decision arbitrary except for (Women's Union), the pro-authority , but this latest decision of discord and conflicting views about it within the authority, as well as acting in his rejection of all human rights organizations locally and globally.
6 - Civil Service Regulations: Altytaty man the right to transfer his wife with him in case of transfer to another work place, does not grant women the right to transfer her husband with her.
7 - disregarding the prohibition of women's work after the tenth night in which violations of international labor conventions, where we find that some workers in the textile mills for example, working two shifts or three shifts