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Sudanese women: past - present:

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Since the Arabs entered Sudan became often history is made by men (as confirmed by Dr. Ajubh in his values ​​of Sudanese women: the darkness of the past and Ohraqath), and then were given the women the importance of minimum and especially by historians, modern, although the conversion to Islam isnaads Sufism was the farthest extent of the women, as evidenced by the layers and d guest book of God. It is strange that Holt Holt, who represents the school standing in the modern history of Sudan has stated that the denial of women in formal education (in the first half of the twentieth century) did not deprive them of that have a strong influence and complete control over the domestic life and social development.
Associated with the low status of women in the Sudan to enter the Arabs Ja him of the mentality of looting and invasion thus slavery, Vastellae Arab power in the Sudan was the entrance to the main women in the Jebel Marra area, for example, they have been a pagan religion or not religious, but as it has elements of Islamic infiltration across institutions power in the kingdoms of Nubia and the Beja in eastern Sudan and north and take advantage of the system in the maternal inheritance of power, is also able to Islamisation of kingdoms and Tunjur immediately by marrying the daughters of the aristocracy of the ruling classes.
In the framework of a society in the blending of cultural and labor culture is difficult, it was necessary that there should be more than one dimension to any phenomenon of social phenomena Valansab, for example, does not moderate the formula accepted in other Arab countries until after the Turkish occupation of Egypt in the early nineteenth century. In the layers and Ddev God was the author is keen to decline percentages bilaterally: paternalistic and Amoaa. The mother has been a hub of the flowing until the first quarter of the nineteenth century.
In the matriarchal society that knew the old Sudan, perhaps double the male's role in pregnancy to the degree in which the women carry the man from any position and remain reserved.
In Sudan, after the birth of Islam under the double appears and disappears at all stages of transition to the Turkish era and bilateral and after independence, where there was unilateral paternal descent in regular government schools and in the internal labor relations, where he became the modern name of the mother or sister had brought shame on the owner.
Women suffered in Sudan, many of the destructive phenomena of existence, such as the phenomenon of exile, as happened in the Turkish and Mahdia, and enslaved the tribes to each other as the Masalit and other tribes, the Fur and Shaigiyya and Dinka and Fung and Arab groups against each other, etc. .. as well as captivity individual being done by individuals, say Dr. Mukhtar Ajubh "at the end of Turkey and during the era of Mahdia, the taking of captivity created a grants organized religious justification by the Mahdi himself, and went too far when Caliph Abdullah after him. and say that the elite of captivity and slavery, for example, more bitter experiences of the women in the Sudan.
Women unlike men, have had the status of social advantage on the history of men in the course of public life, Sudanese and including the power and influence apparent they were in the hands of men, especially after the entry of Arabs into the Sudan, the authority, whether religious, social or economic or cultural, are identified ethics of women in line Each stage of the changes and political instability, since the society was a society play a institution of slavery played a key role both at the level of family life, the level of personal status, or economic activities, the ethics of women may differ depending on its position in the social structure and formats of religious, economic and political.
In the colonial period, we find three different social systems, including system Fung and the State of Mahdia and colonialism Turkish - Egyptian. In the era of Fung (1505 - 1851) was characterized by the social control of religious forces - combined with commercial features and semi-feudal system emerged in which the influence of paternal influence. Select this influence only two women: that to be bought and sold under way or that play the role of the wife to the pleasure of saving her husband and raising her children within the walls of the house.
When subjected the country to colonize the Turkish Egyptian (1821 - 1885) transformation of economy of the areas median Nile and marginal areas to serve the needs of military and industrial on the limitations of the Egyptian state was for projects retrofit to their scarcity and the spread of the slave trade profound impact on social structure in the country. As a result, Egypt was to link the concept of transfer (Foundation harem) in every sense of the implications of this institution on the status of women.
With the advent of British colonialism (1898 - 1956) we find it adopted a policy of duplication of work as a change to serve the economic interests at the same time work to determine the pace of change so as not to include social and cultural Abanniaat Aatar and political stability. With jungle women participated in the National Movement (10)
When the country gained independence in 1956 opened the door to the women's movement to promote the realization of women's demands in the political social economic and legal .. And women have already been able to achieve some legal requirements such as increased educational opportunities for girls in various stages and types and some other demands, but the status of women remained surrounded by a number of constraints and factors associated with the new reality wrought by colonialism.
The participation of women in the struggle against colonialism incentive to campaign against the military regime in 1958 (Abboud system), resulted in a number of gains after the revolution of 1964 (the glorious October Revolution). This link is close to the women's movement and the movement of national political movement after independence was driven by political engagement and Altanzimi Sudanese radical movement has adopted more radical than others cause of women.
Since the mid-seventies as a result of shifts in the Sudanese society shifts occurred tread the political community to look at the issue of women have started conservative political elites and religious attention to the issue of women and to get around the same time. For political reasons related to partisan interests.
Including that the group that seized control of the reins of power in 1983 and after 1989 were committed to the interpretation of Islamic law based on the discrimination and oppression against women, the impact of late arrival to power, had clear repercussions on the situation of women in Sudan, either as citizens or as women. Laws notorious (September 1983) allowed the sovereignty and point of view of the Islamic Front and its interpretation of the law over other interpretations as well as the rule of the position of religious institutions that matches with it, has prevailed in these two visions on the customs and traditions and civil laws that were in place before and which had led to the better position of women and to correct their positions in the various family matters.
Invented the term initiation of adultery, the law is being used by fundamentalists to curtail the situation of women in public Almjajalat. Although it is difficult to prove the crime of adultery, the law attempted to make adultery a mere appearance of a woman with a man not married to her it not first-degree relatives in a public place or in a car crime initiate weight.
This law was very effective in minimizing the emergence of women to avoid problems that may result from public activities. Also, the wineries have all been attacked by assault (11)
Sudanese women under the rule of rescue (1989 - 2005):
Taken Bashir's government several steps for the relations between the sexes has been the Government held a conference entitled: "The role of women in the National Salvation" in January 1990 In this conference, the president knew his view of the Sudanese Women's idealism as follows: "Women-friendly reputation and take care of herself and her children, her husband and the duties home and be a committed Muslim. "
Has proposed one of the reports submitted to the Conference you are directed to government policies that restricted women's work on two areas outside of work, family and nursing training in primary schools (Africa watt1995) and another report confirms the role of women as mothers and housewives .. All these changes confirm and support the ideology of the dominant group power. . This is the ideology that defines roles for men and another for women is expressed for example in Article 52 of the Constitution, "Personal Status Law for Muslims," ​​which was passed in July 1991, which is one of the most important Altnhariat in this regard. Article Almzkurh that the rights of man that "his wife's care home, foster and maintain the honor with the proper disposition of his property" As for women's rights as stated in Article 51 guarantees the dowry, good treatment, and defense of the alimony, the right to visit her parents and relatives of incest, and the right to equal treatment with other wives of her husband if he was married to other women and not the wife's right to alimony, if working outside the home without the permission of her husband.
There is other material in the Constitution to address the idea of ​​equality of men and women, which is the subject of an ongoing debate between Islamic and liberal discourses on the one hand, and also an ongoing debate between the conservative Islamic discourse and discourse on secular progressive relations between the sexes on the other. Article V of the Personal Status Law stipulates: "the presence of two of the certificate of the marriage contract, as a condition for the completion of the contract and Article 16 of the same Act," to witness the marriage, two men or one man and two women Akunan Muslim adults worthy of trust and understanding and awareness of that confirmation and acceptance mean marriage. " .. view of the above the Government's vision for the role and capacities of women were deliberately separation processes an organization of women from positions of general government and public service, but nevertheless, this procedure has not been officially announced The government has always been to cover the separation of women during the impeachment collective or claim that this action is nothing but an economic and specifically, the women have been made redundant from positions of strategy such as the State and Attorney General, it is between 60 and disconnected has always been the proportion of women 6% and the number of whom were in senior positions and was the justification that women married many absences from work . has insisted the government also said Alencia lawyers must not believing, which excludes secular and Alakulaialt religious women attorneys, and under the economic downturn increased the job has become essential in the lives of women government has used this argument to enforce the Islamic dress code for female workers and determine the behavior to be followed
The Organization of the General Union of Sudanese women is the only organization authorized by the official in Sudan, while banned all organizations prior to the 1989 from working in the country. Has been the imposition of policies and visions of the women's movement in order to comply with the vision system on the status of women's right and protection of, for example, the issue of the imposition of Muharram or the person who must accompany women when traveling. It also proves that travel is justified. In this context also, the law, "to appear in public forums," which was released in 1991, which reflects the application of official government position on the issue of the behavior of women in places Alagama Fattathirat this law was limited to women only (article 152) as well as the post-1989 has a different official agencies to impose the headscarf that was issued in December 1991 a presidential order by the Governor of Khartoum in The Sudan, where women wear modern dress Forensic (12).
Khartoum State issued in 1996 a decree temporarily to the Public Order Act, which took effect since (3/28/1996). The aim of this law, women in particular in terms of their appearance-General (Article 18) and Ahtdahen (Article 15), etc. .. Such a law, the worst tool of terror for women and crush them.
Constitution in force in Sudan is the Constitution of 1998 and called by some, the Constitution is the Constitution of the overall uncertainty surrounding the most vital texts, if Tejerna of articles on the rights and freedoms of concern to women, we can highlight the following observations:
(1) the text of the Constitution the right to equal that: "All people are equal before the courts and the Sudanese are equal in rights and duties in the functions of public life may not be discriminated only because of race, sex, religious creed they are equal in civil for the job and the overall mandate and Eetmaazon money (Article 21 ). do not think that I need to identify ambiguities in this article that came wrapped and rotation of article 26 of the draft constitution prepared by the National Committee of the Constitution Fastbdlt equality before the law contained in that project, equality before the courts, and made equal in rights and duties, coupled with the functions of public life, and linked the lack of discrimination in the job and the state of public money without the other, and no wonder, then, that shut the doors of the state judiciary in front of women since the dawn of the rescue and until this moment. It was the former president to eliminate the plan never saw the light was scheduled under which isolate the judges who joined the elimination before the system rescue special legal system is limited for them alone.
(2) despite the fact that the rights and freedoms and were scheduled for all without distinction as to sex, this Constitution may Achtzelha came while these rights and freedoms and a clear and detailed in the draft National Committee.
(3) The most dangerous thing in this Constitution, it had the rights and freedoms of the law without any limitation on the legislature to do so. , So it's no wonder that the intrusion of a lawmaker - nationally was or the final and any right to private and principles addressed are formulated in the texts of loose fired by the legislature without judicial oversight was to pass laws that achieve targets obscure (see, for example, the text of Article 18 of the Constitution and see the text of Article 19 than in the right of the legislator in legislation and in accordance with the principles without being directed by the judicial oversight).
(4) reported the National Committee the right to health care, treatment and social security (as a right guaranteed to all), as well as the right of mothers in the care and the right of women working in the guarantees and the right of children in the door of the rights and freedoms materials: (47-50 - 51), respectively, of the draft constitution of the Committee ), while those rights were premature and vague in the door of the guiding principles of the Constitution.
The subjection of the rights and freedoms of the law take away these rights and freedoms described constitutional slogan of governance to God, who adopted the Constitution (Article 4) is not likely that there will be legislation in what is outside the framework of religious values ​​and then with respect to women can not be to the Constitution to adopt something of the basic rights established by the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. That the entry of a debt in the battle to ensure all the rights of women does not remain a cause for the intensification of the battle only Awar, but also to crack the domestic front, which is fighting for those rights.
Women's .. Sudanese women and issues:

The violence that Tjabha women in the family or the community one fundamental issues of concern to women, and forms of violence against women are many and multi-family inside and outside the family in the public domain. Traditionally studies and information on the concept of violence Taliv violence and determine its scope as follows:
(1) The practice of violence against women is not limited to harmful practices such as: Taldharb, rape and torture only. But violence is a part of the inherited social behavior based on the motives of many aimed at restricting women's traditional role as a mother only and not to give that role great value and lack of opportunity for women to play as much because of the freedom and ability to make decisions related to it.
(2) violence is a result of any exercise of physical and psychological harm, includes the threat or the act of beating or killing and violence means deprivation and denial of participation includes the right of control, ownership, and individual decision-making in the private and public issues.
(3) that violence against women is a heinous means Alatnsanah digest of women's rights, social and development is taking many of the methods of direct multiplication. Humiliation, contempt,. Deprivation, abandonment, and the flawed approaches to gender relations in addition to all the insults and hurt feelings. It is considered polygamy as a form of violence is coercion into marriage by parents kind of violence or deprivation of study or work.
(4) that violence against women is an old and inherited between generations, are found in all societies and at all social levels despite the differences and the different religions and cultures.
The out the recommendations emanating from the World Conference on Women in Beijing 1995 that the concept of violence against women is not limited only to what was said, but that violence against women is a holistic concept under the framework of human rights, and combating violence against women aimed at achieving equality between men and women to advance to participate development and to address the civil laws of the work, and divorce laws and the crime that has been made of discrimination against women.
There is another violent mutilation says studies have been performed on the wrong social habits that the health outcomes of direct and indirect suffered by the girl and resulting from these practices is treatable. Has shown some research that 82% of girls younger than 10 years experience the female genital mutilation in the country's desert coast of Africa, and 30% of them die a victim of this process, Y 0% gestational disease, infertility, and the rest are vulnerable to disease, the membership of reproductive and other women were prey to a life full of fear and trauma psychological.
Through the review of constitutions Alnmtaaqbh on the rule of Sudan, we find that the interim constitution for the year 1956 (Independence Constitution), such as a quick fix to fill the void left by the sudden transition to national independence. And then it was just an outline of the basic law would govern the country until a new constitution is complete, however, Article (4) it was explicit in its reference to equality between the "people" without the allocation of the type also ensured the right to hold public office and private use in any job or profession or business or profession. The sculpture Article (46) of the Constitution the same direction with respect to the qualifications of members of parliament and adopted a provisional Constitution of the Sudan (amended in 1964) the same approach to equality and ensure the rights and freedoms. Even though the community was serious in accepting this approach, such general provisions were sufficient to approve women's rights without the need to refer to it with any degree of customization, so the draft Constitution of 1968 is a comprehensive and integrated at the sponsorship of the rights of the different on the basis of citizenship and belonging to the human race as it was referring to "citizens" and "people" in full equality between men and women.
The Constitution of May (the Permanent Constitution of 1973) were not satisfied to ensure the rights on the basis of citizenship (equal to that between men and women) and a passing reference in the door of the guiding principles of motherhood and childhood, as did the draft constitution of 1968, but went further by requiring the State under Article 55 care mothers and children and to provide adequate safeguards for working women. In spite of the disadvantages of May many, but it has been active and visible in the field recognize the rights of women and to issue regulations governing those rights and women's participation in public work in concrete, with respect to the right to work and the appropriate treatment of women in this regard issued May Regime in 1981, the Labour Relations Act individual who took into account the all the requirements of the nature of women and give them equal pay for equal work and acknowledged the right to breaks during work also acknowledged the rights of pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Then came the Interim Constitution of 1985 Famen Article 17 of the principle of equality without discrimination reasons, the number, including sex, said the constitution guaranteed the rights and fundamental freedoms (including the right of property and the right to participate in Ciwon public) to citizenship as the basis for the enjoyment of these rights, ensuring equality for all including, of course, women (13).

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Dr.Sulafa Elagib Ahmed's picture

Great efforts

I really appreciated you great efforts in shown the progress history of Sudanese women ,go ahead

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