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Feminist Theory as a Democratic Theory


Feminism and political theory as a set of movements, doctrines and ideas, but is present from the fifteenth century it was not until the late eighteenth century that formally adopts a political logic, beyond mere philosophical speculation and criticizes the social system in the controversial wave of thoughts and literary tradition on the status, nature and value of women developed in previous centuries known as the "complaint of women".

Feminism emerges during the European Enlightenment, is in the Cathedral when it takes its first big push, in the context of this controversial century, changes and contradictions, the rebirth of reason, the emergence of new political models, economic, cultural, artistic and scientific, where it opens and tries to introduce as political principles of equal wit and treatment for women in response, and refusal to recognize political and legal practices has been enacted by men, for men in the eighteenth century and nineteenth centuries, from the social changes and progress made since the socio-political revolutions of the period.

Women having thwarted his attempts to direct participation in these revolutionary processes and post-revolutionary political education, and socio-cultural, as well same awareness by women of their status as alienated, behind, the absence of recognition and social exclusion maintained, despite the new social structures would have more impact because it denied their right to equality in a society claiming to be founded on justice.

The values of the Enlightenment, and of revolutionary movements but would be based on "equality, fraternity and liberty" rights defined and statues as "natural and indefeasible" would not be included in them women, were kept the old traditions which enacted physical inferiority, intellectual, ethical and women, even among those who defended some of the same access to cultural production. "The barbarous custom of giving women a mean breeding is widespread among us, and has remained until the end that really believes ... that women are endowed with the same reasoning as men "(Bathsu Pell Makin)

Jean Jacques Rousseau, the greatest exponent of the intellectual tradition of the Enlightenment, whose ideals of democratic politics and the formation of the republic to our beginnings have been kept, has yet to put in evidence "the dark side of the Cathedral." His theoretical and policy proposal was based on inequality "As it relates to sex a woman is equal to man, has the same organs, the same needs and the same powers, the machine has the same construction, are the same parts and act the same way ... When it comes to sex relations are always between a man and woman are always differences ... These relationships and differences should influence the moral. palpable consequence, according to the experience, which demonstrates the vanity of the disputes over the primacy or equality of the sexes ... that exists in common between them, are equal, but how different are not comparable. It should seem as a little man and woman perfect in understanding and in the face ... The one must be active and strong, the other passive and weak. It is essential that one is willing and able and sufficient that the other objects with little resistance.

Given this principle, it follows that the special purpose of women is to please man. The merit of man consists in his power and only by being strong like. "(JJ Rousseau." Emile. ") Promulgated a social equality and reserved for men, and founded on the preponderance of these on women." The Good social institutions are those with the means of distorting the individual, take away his existence and replace it with a relative "(JJ Rousseau." Emile. ") In the logic Rousseau women is seen as lacking, deficient in a perennial state childhood, so it has not and should not be abandoned to their fate, "by natural law, women, both as to whether their children are at the mercy of men." (JJ Rousseau. "Emile.") Those who are obliged to honor them, the attractiveness of domestic life, motherhood, maintaining the reputation and chastity, and behavioral patterns that have to respond "to the constitution of their sex and species to occupy the suitable position in the physical and moral "(JJ Rousseau." Emile. ")

The woman seen as childish, irresponsible, negligent, "those sweet mothers shed their children to live happily the diversions of the town, you know that their children receive treatment in the village?" (JJ Rousseau. "Emile." ) Whose natural tendency of women from this interpretive logic is oriented towards individualism, "not content with having stopped breastfeeding their children, women no longer want in future design and the result is natural. As soon as it is tiresome mother status is the way to escape the "(JJ Rousseau." Emile. ") The woman who would be denied and any area subject to the exercise of rights, education" nor the man or women are or should be formed in the same way with respect to the character and temperament, it follows that they should not be given equal education "

"Should be brought up in ignorance of all things, limited only to home runs? The man should make his companion a maid? Do you feel you must stop and learn anything in order to enslave it to be better? Certainly not. He must learn many things, but only what you should know "(JJ Rousseau." Emile ".) Political participation, citizenship and freedom, whose social institutions and policies should focus for the maintenance of the family," the more family moves away from the unit but must centralize laws, the greater the diversity of interests, but a reduced amount to a common interest. " (Charles Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws ") and whose ideal society is grounded in a republic in which every man is head of household and citizen in which individuals from Rousseau proposal must have a character and function remarkable demographic, in which a woman must give birth often avoiding long intervals, to populate the cities, their fate to be always pregnant, and understood femininity associated exclusively from nature, ie a purely biological function, as well the same man must produce the kind men and citizens to the state, man as a producer of culture, doing political beings.
Thus the political formation, intellectual and practical humanity production is presented as an androcentric and misogynist, then feminism is structured in response to this ideological conception of women as an attempt to claim political equality and full legal women relative to men. "What we want for women's equal rights, equal social privileges, not a different situation, a sort of sentimental priesthood" (Harriet Taylor Mill, "Essay on Women's Suffrage.") The difference feminism This topical discourse dramatically, is a typically enlightened political thought, as the largest correction to the original deep sectarian democratism. "You have returned to man the dignity of his being to recognize their rights, you must not allow women continue to suffer under arbitrary authority" (Etta Palm D `Aelders)

However, specifically in the case of the theoretical proposal feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, in his text "A Vindication of the Rights of Women", was established as a response to criticism and rejection criteria and intellectual arguments of the Enlightenment that were used as tool to discredit, mystification, subordination and women, their roles and socio-political status, specifically aimed at challenging the position Rousseau, proposed in the text "Emile" described above.

Rousseau: "Educate women and men and the more they resemble our sex, the less power will have on us"
Mary Wollstonecraft, Emilio Response: "This is exactly what I intend. I do not want to have power over men but over themselves. "
Mary Wollstonecraft makes a critique of patriarchal societal training of our societies, arguing that "civilization that has so far taken place in the world has been very partial" (Mary Wollstonecraft. "Vindication of the Rights of Women" ) categorically rejects any argument that appeals to uphold and maintain the sex-gender differentiation which defined, categorized and institutionalized male social identity through the public (the world of reason) and women through private (World of love, feelings, morality, remaining outside of reason) "men try to ensure the good conduct of women trying to maintain a state of childhood in" "want to persuade women in his attempt to acquire strength, mind and body, to persuade soft phrases, susceptibility of heart, delicacy of feeling and refined taste "(Mary Wollstonecraft." Vindication of the Rights of Women ")

It is in this segmentarización of practices and conditions "intrinsic and natural" attributed to genera where Wollstonecraft conceives the genesis of social inequality, and promoting and maintaining a propensity to tyrannize the relationship between sex. "The perfection of our nature must be estimated by the degree of reason, virtue and knowledge that distinguishes the individual, and direct the laws that bind society, the exercise of reason, knowledge and virtue is undeniable if humanity is regarded collectively (Mary Wollstonecraft. "Vindication of the Rights of Women"), regardless of gender. Proposed and introduced in the political and intellectual debate on a social, political, legal and inclusive education and inclusive, "the ideal education is one that allows the independent exercise of reason, this was the view of Rousseau in relation to men , I extend to women (Mary Wollstonecraft. "Vindication of the Rights of Women")

He criticizes the naturalization of the allotted inferiority of women, and proposed to be demolished the walls of ideological constructions, stereotypical and arbitrary sedimented in social awareness and fixed by custom through practices, discourses and socio-cultural values "but if women should be excluded but not have any involvement in the natural rights of mankind, prove first, to refute the charge so wrong and illogical, they are devoid of intelligence, otherwise it will show that man inevitably behaves like a tyrant. (Mary Wollstonecraft. "Vindication of the Rights of Women")

However, advocates the revision of prejudices and social conventions, "it is time to make a revolution in female manners, it is time to return women lost their dignity and contribute as members of the species human reform themselves changing world "(Mary Wollstonecraft." Vindication of the Rights of Women ") appeals to the redefinition of women's political considerations, a demand for changes to the structures that allow participation in political affairs-public "really think that women should have representatives instead of being arbitrarily governed without being able to have input into the deliberations of government." (Mary Wollstonecraft. "Vindication of the Rights of Women")

So, as feminism has been presented as the unwanted child in history as the main enemy of the patriarchal institution, specifically in that period, which was the awareness of women as social class and the break with the tradition, the debate is not over yet, and although banned gender inequalities persist in social institutions to the present moment.

Esther Pineda G.


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